Acquiring Knowledge for Evaluation of Teachers’ Performance in Higher Education – using a Questionnaire Hafeez Ullah Amin
Institute of Information Technology Kohat University of Science & Technology (KUST) Kohat, Pakistan Email: email@example.com Abstract— in this paper, we present the step by step knowledge acquisition process by choosing a structured method through using a questionnaire as a knowledge acquisition tool. Here we want to depict the problem domain as, “how to evaluate teacher’s performance in higher education through the use of expert system technology”. The problem is how to acquire the specific knowledge for a selected problem efficiently and effectively from human experts and to encode it in the suitable computer format. Acquiring knowledge from human experts in the process of Expert Systems development is one of the most common problems cited till yet. This questionnaire was sent to 87 domain experts within all public and private universities of Pakistan. Among them 25 domain experts sent their valuable opinions. Most of the domain experts were highly qualified, well experienced and highly responsible persons. The whole questionnaire was divided into 15 main groups of factors, which were further divided into 99 individual questions. These facts were analyzed further to reach a final shape of the questionnaire. This knowledge acquisition technique may be used as a learning tool for further research work. Keywords- Expert system, knowledge acquisition, decision making, human resource management, questionnaire, domain experts
Abdur Rashid Khan
Institute of Computing and Information Technology Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
development [1, 11, 12, 14, 15]. It is among the most common cited problem in the construction of expert system. The literature study shows that there exist a number of knowledge acquisition techniques for acquiring knowledge and expertise from domain experts, like interview, questionnaire, observation analysis, case study analysis, protocol analysis etc [1, 6, 11, 12, 15]. Further, the selection of a particular technique is based on the target problem to be solved, availability and accessibility of the human experts, and the knowledge engineers’ approach towards the solution. Therefore, the problem should clearly be defined; the availability and accessibility of the domain experts should be ensured, and the knowledge engineers should be capable to select a suitable tool for capturing the expertise from concern sources. In this paper, we present a step by step process of knowledge acquisition through the use of questionnaire for acquiring knowledge from knowledge sources (human experts) in the selected problem that is “evaluating teachers’ performance for maintaining teaching quality in higher education”. This research work is limited to the higher education institutions in Pakistan, domain experts were selected from universities in Pakistani, and a questionnaire was used as a tool for capturing knowledge. II. KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITIONS
Expert systems were developed by Artificial Intelligence community as early as in mid-1960s . These systems are decision making and problem solving tools with the abilities to emulate the reasoning of human expert with in a special subject area . The use and development of the expert systems in various subject areas has been found, like agriculture, chemistry, computer science, engineering, geology, medicine, space technology etc. . The critical component in the development of expert system is the knowledge base . This component consists of human experts’ knowledge which is extracted by the knowledge engineers through the process called Knowledge Acquisition. The knowledge acquisition is the accumulation, transfer, and transformation of problem solving expertise from human...