Summarise entitlement and provision for early year’s education. Thanks to the Every Child Matters and the Childcare Act 2006 all 3 and 4 years olds in England receive free part-time (12 ½ per week) for 38 weeks a year. This is government funded and the idea is for all children to have 2 years of free education before they even start school. Early year’s provision for these very young children varies greatly from the education they will receive in KS1 as it is play focused as opposed to formal learning, which is how these very young children learn best. The Foundation Curriculum in England and Wales runs from age 3-5 and is therefore implemented in nursery schools right up to the end of the autumn term in Year 1. It focuses on specific tasks, for example number work, language or writing activities, and the children work alongside adults who help to underpin their knowledge. The children and also encouraged to choose activities for themselves to increase confidence and independent learning.
Explain the characteristics of the different types of schools in relation to educational stages and school governance. There are four main types of mainstream state schools known as ‘Maintained Schools’ which are all funded by the local authorities and all have to follow the National Curriculum. Community schools are owned and run by local authorities who support schools and make links to the local community and provide support services. They tend to determine admissions and may develop the use of school facilities by local groups such as adult learning or childcare classes. Foundation and trust schools are run by their own governing body and determine admissions in conjunction with the Local Education Authority. The school and grounds will be owned by the governing body or a charitable organisation. Trust schools form charitable trusts with an outside partner, usually a business and will have to buy in any support services. The governing body have to consult with parents in order to become a trust school. Voluntary-aided schools tend to be religious or faith schools although pupils of any denomination can attend. They are run by their own governing body but the school buildings and land are usually owned by a religious organisation or charity. They are funded by the governing body, charity and local education authority that also provide support services. Voluntary-controlled schools are run and funded by the local authority that employ the staff and provide support services. The land and buildings are owned by a charity which is usually a religious organisation.
Specialist schools are usually secondary schools which have applied for specialist status to develop one or two specialisms and receive additional funding from the government for this. Special schools can also receive specialist status. Other types of schools exist which are not funded directly from the LEA (local education authority). Independent schools are funded directly from fees paid for by parents/carers and from investments, gifts and charitable endowments. Over fifty per cent have charitable status and so can claim tax exemption. They do not have to follow the national curriculum and admissions are decided by the head teacher and governors. They have to register with the Department for Education to enable regular monitoring by either Ofsted or the ISI (Independent Schools Inspectorate). Academies are set up by sponsors from the business world which jointly funds the land and buildings. They are not maintained by the LEA although have close links with them.
Explain the post-16 options for young people and adults.
For many years the options for 16 year olds have been to stay on at school or enter the workplace; however since the “September Guarantee” in 2007 the options available to school leavers have been greatly increased. This was implemented to reduce the...