Tda 2.2 Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People. -3.1 Identify the Characteristics of Different Types of Child Abuse.

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-3.1 Identify the characteristics of different types of child abuse. There are four categories of abuse: - Physical, Neglect, Emotional and sexual. Physical Abuse
Physical abuse is the intentional deliberate use of physical force or violence to hurt or injure a child. It may include slapping, punching, pulling hair, hitting, beating with objects, burning with cigarettes/cooker rings, scalding, shaking, biting, squeezing, cutting, throwing, poisoning, attempting to suffocate/drown or giving inappropriate drugs/alcohol. Some of the signs and symptoms of physical abuse are bruises in places that would not be associated with a child falling over accidentally, these may happen frequently. They maybe finger marks from being grabbed, burns these may be obvious marks from a cigarette being held against a child’s skin or obvious circular burns from a cooker ring. There may be fractures to bones or other injuries to the child that the parent are neglected and not getting then appropriate medical attention that the child needs. The child may not be able to move limbs if they are fractured or if they are badly bruised. There may be bite marks or cuts on the child or marks showing the outline of an object such as a belt that the child has been hit with. There may be signs of a brain injury if a child has been shaken especially with babies or smaller children. They may have a torn frenulum from having things forced into their mouths. The child may have problems with weight loss and may find it difficult to gain weight; they may have bald patches on their head from having their hair pulled. Some other more behavioural signs of physical abuse are withdrawn behaviour; a child may withdraw from physical contact and may flinch when approached or touched. They may also withdraw from close relationships. They may become more aggressive and display a lot of self-destructive behaviour. They may become apprehensive when others cry as they associate crying with the physical abuse that they have been through. The child may refuse to discuss the injuries that they have and may be reluctant to remove any of their clothes in the summer when it’s warm or may be reluctant to get changed for PE. They may have a fear of going home or a fear of their parents/carers if the abuse is taking place at home and if it is their parent or carer abusing them. They may also be worried about their parents being approached for an explanation of their injuries as they may be worried as to what will happen to them, with their parents if they are annoyed that the child has allowed their injuries to be seen or if they were to be taken from their parents if it is the parents abusing them. They may have a change in eating pattern- they may not be eating or they may eating more than usual and are comfort eating. A child may be showing frozen awareness which is a facial expression that a child may have if they have been abused. The child may be constantly looking around and be alert but are physically inactive and demonstrate a lack of trust in adults.

Neglect
Neglect is the persistent failure by the parents or carers to provide adequately for a child’s health, development, psychological and safety needs. It may not always be intentional by the parents. It may include not providing adequate food, shelter, water or clothes. It may also be not providing adequate place for the child to sleep or having to share a room with another sibling who does not allow them to get enough sleep. It may be not showing the child enough love and attention. It may also be not giving the child enough exercise or stimulation. They may not be provided with medical care, nutrition or hygiene routines. The child may be left alone in the house or may be left in the care of inappropriate people who are not able to ensure the child is kept safe. Signs and symptoms of neglect may be that the child is always hungry; they may be over/under weight, underweight if they are not being fed and...
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