Tda 2.1 Child and Young Person Development

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TDA 2.1 Child and young person development

Learning outcome 1.1
Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years, to include:

·Physical development
·Communication and intellectual development
·Social, emotional and behavioural development

Birth to 3 years

The expected pattern starts at 0-3 years where a child is expected to develop the most. They have little control over their bodies at 0-1 years and are dependent on their natural instincts eg: sucking, grasping.

Newborn

New Born babies use their senses from the moment they are born, they can already recognise their mothers voice and smell and they have natural reflexes for example the Walking and standing reflex which occurs when babies are held upright with their feet on a firm surface, they usually make stepping movements.

Physical Development
Swallowing and sucking reflexes - These ensure that the baby can feed and swallow milk Rooting reflex - The baby will move its head to look for a nipple or teat. Grasp reflex - The baby will automatically put her fingers around an object that has touched the palm of her hand. Startle reflex - When babies hear a sudden sound or bright light, they will react by moving their arms outwards and clenching their fists Walking and standing reflex - When babies are held upright with their feet on a firm surface, they usually make stepping movements Falling reflex - This is known as the Moro reflex. Babies will stretch out their arms suddenly and then clasp inwards in any situations in which they feel that they are falling.

Communication and Intellectual development
Babies at birth cry in order to communicate their needs, they may cry when they are hungry, in pain, need feeding, changing or just cuddling. They also start to look around and react to sounds.

Social, Emotional and Behavioural Development
Babies and their primary carers, usually their mothers, begin to develop a strong, close bond from very early on. You might see that the baby at times stares at the mother and the mother is very aware of her baby.

One month

In a short month, babies have changed already. They might appear less curled up and more relaxed. Babies at one month have usually started to settle into a sleeping pattern. They sleep quite a lot of the time, but will gradually start to spend longer times awake. They cry to communicate their needs and their parents may be starting to understand the different types of cries. Babies too are learning about their parents or carers. They may stop crying when they hear soothing voices. They also try hard to focus on the face of whoever is holding them.

Physical development
Reflexes are not as strong although the baby will be growing stronger and may be able to lift their heads for a short while, whilst held upright. Babies can see more clearly than at birth. He enjoys looking at bold patterns and human faces, and can track an object with his eyes He begins to uncurl his hands, and may wave his arms and kick when excited.

Communication and intellectual development
At one month babies may stop crying because they hear a familiar voice, they are also becoming more expressive and may start to coo and gurgle when they see you. Babies may mimic the mouth movements and facial expressions of adults.

Social, emotional and behavioural development
Babies may stop crying as they are picked up, but start crying when they are put down. Babies will start to relax during bath time or when their nappies are changed.

Three to six months

Babies in three months have grown in height and weight. They are wearing new sets of clothes and have changed in many ways. Some babies have learned the difference between day and night and are able to sleep through the night, which is a great help to parents. Babies are also crying less and most parents are getting more familiar with what their cries mean. They may start to sleep a little less and are...
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