Scientific management, also known as Taylorism, was an innovative theory that maximized production efficiency within the manufacturing industries in the late 19th century. The main goal of this management theory was to improve economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. The way it worked was that scientific management removed autonomy of skilled workers, but rather it simplified job tasks so that job could be performed even by unskilled workers who could be easily trained. Before scientific management, workers had to learn necessary skills in a long time period until they become skilled enough. However, all these started when Fredrick Taylor, the person who invented this theory, noticed inefficiency or “soldiering” in the steel industries. Although scientific management seems to have succeeded in transforming inefficiency into efficiency and only have good sides due to its effects, it was a highly controversial subject in many areas.
In the steel industry, Taylor observed inefficiency among workers where they worked far below their capacity. It did not matter if the workers were smart, because even smart workers tended to work far below their capacity and did not put enough effort for several reasons. They were basically unmotivated. He later found out that employees that are forced to work meaningless and repetitive tasks usually perform at the slowest rate. There were some reasons behind its slowness. One of the main reasons would be workers tend to think that if they work at their best abilities and become more productive, fewer of them will be needed thus jobs will be eliminated. One another reason was non-incentive wage system back in the 19th century. This non-incentive wage system ultimately discouraged workers to work with their full potential, because they get paid the same amount whether they work fast or slow. Also, through the non-incentive wage system, workers tried to convince their employers that slow paced work is better,...
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