In general, tax can be defined as a levy or other type of a financial charge or fee imposed by state or central governments on legal entities or individuals. |
Local authorities like local governments, provincial governments, counties and municipal corporations also have the right to impose taxes. The rates, rules, and regulations of taxation differ from one country to another and they are complex in character. Tax is a principal source of revenue for a country's government. A country's tax laws determine who should bear the tax burden, or who should pay tax. The tax rate is imposed as a certain percentage of the income earned. Taxation policies play an important role in the financial and economic development of a country. The default or partial payment of taxes attracts penalties. The penalties can be civil or criminal penalties.
A direct tax is a form of tax is collected directly by the government from the persons who bear the tax burden. Taxable individuals file tax returns directly to the government. Examples of direct taxes are corporate taxes, income taxes, and transfer taxes.
An indirect tax is a form of tax collected by mediators who transfer the taxes to the government, and also perform functions associated with filing tax returns. The customers bear the final tax burden. Examples of indirect taxes are sales tax and value added tax (VAT).
There are other types of taxes, which may either be direct tax or indirect taxes, including capital gains tax, corporation tax, consumption tax, inheritance tax, property tax, excise duty, retirement tax, tariffs, wealth tax or net worth tax, toll tax, and poll tax.
History of tax
The rapid changes in administration of direct taxes, during the last decades, reflect the history of socio-economic thinking in India. From 1922 to the present day changes in direct tax laws have been so rapid that except in the bare outlines, the traces of the I.T. Act, 1922 can hardly be seen in the 1961 Act as it stands amended to date. It was but natural, in these circumstances that the set up of the department should not only expand but undergo structural changes as well. | | The organizational history of the Income-tax Department starts in the year 1922. The Income-tax Act, 1922, gave, for the first time, a specific nomenclature to various Income-tax authorities. The foundation of a proper system of administration was thus laid. In 1924, Central Board of Revenue Act constituted the Board as a statutory body with functional responsibilities for the administration of the Income-tax Act. Commissioners of Income- tax were appointed separately for each province and Assistant Commissioners and Income-tax Officers were provided under their control. The amendments to the Income tax Act, in 1939, made two vital structural changes: (i) appellate functions were separated from administrative functions; a class of officers, known as Appellate Assistant Commissioners, thus came into existence, and (ii) a central charge was created in Bombay. In 1940, with a view to exercising effective control over the progress and inspection of the work of Income-tax Department throughout India, the very first attached office of the Board, called Directorate of Inspection (Income Tax) - was created. As a result of separation of executive and judicial functions, in 1941, the Appellate Tribunal came into existence. In the same year, a central charge was created in Calcutta also. |
| | World War II brought unusual profits to businessmen. During 1940 to 1947, Excess Profits Tax and Business Profits Tax were introduced and their administration handed over to the Department (These were later repealed in 1946 and 1949 respectively). In 1951, the 1st Voluntary Disclosure Scheme was brought in. It was during this period, in 1946, that a few Group 'A' officers were directly recruited. Later on in 1953, the Group 'A' Service was formally...