How would you define Criminology?
There are many ways in which Criminology can be described. Criminology is a social science and it looks at society’s reaction to the laws which have been broken and tries to find out what has led a person to commit a crime by looking at the criminal’s behaviour and the criminal as a person. The definition of Criminology depends on the individual society, that the people involved come from, wither it be the criminal, the victim or the people trying to investigate the pacific crime which is taking place.
My understanding of Criminology is that there are many ways in which to describe it. Many people from different societies and cultures see crimes in a different way from others and what is a crime in one country may not be a crime in another country. To define a crime, the Criminologist has to look at where and when the crime has taken place. My understanding is that there can be no ‘set-in-stone’ definition for Criminology as crime is ever changing which makes it difficult to define because what may be seen as a crime today may not be a crime in five years. Also some thing that is not a crime today may be seen as a crime in five years.
Explain the difference between macro and micro theories used by Criminologists.
Both the macro and micro theories used by Criminologists are detailed theories that pay very close attention to all of the different aspects of crime and the criminal behaviour of the person committing the crime. The differences between the macro and micro theories are that the macro theory explains the crime on a larger scale and, due to this, it can also explain why the crime in one town or city has a higher crime rate than another local town or city. The micro theory is in contrast with the macro theory as it tends to focus on the smaller groups (or individual) of criminals. The micro theory attempt to explain why the certain individuals are more likely that others to commit a crime and why men are more likely to commit crimes than women.
Macro Theories| Micro Theories|
These types of theories are all about the social structures & the effects on human behaviour. | These types of theories are usually more concrete. | These types of theory are about the conflict in the crimes.| These theories try to explain how and why the individual person commits crimes. | These theories are sometimes referred to as epidemiological. This means that these types of theory are all about the crime rates as a whole.| These types of theories are sometimes referred to as etiological (which is the opposite of epidemiological). This means that these types of theories are all about the explanation of the criminals behaviour, ether within a small group or the individual.|
Using your knowledge of your local area, consider which particular crimes appear to be increasing or decreasing. Discuss how your perceptions compare with those reported in the official crime statistics.
Using my knowledge of my local area, which is Falkirk in Central Scotland, the particular crimes which appear to be increasing in frequency and becoming more serious are: * Anti- Social Behaviour
* Domestic Abuse
It is clear when looking through the local newspapers and on Falkirk Council websites in the last few weeks, that anti-social behaviour is the highest crime committed in around the area. This didn’t come as a surprise to me as this has been the case for as long as I can remember. The Falkirk Herald had an article in the newspaper on the anti-social behaviour in the area and what procedures the police were trying to put into place to help reduce the issue. The article states that the Scottish Executive has allocated £400,000 to Falkirk Council to help in tackling the problems which include problems such as little, graffiti and nuisance neighbours as well as the other issues which the town encounter. In another article, titled ‘Taking no...