Talk Show Example Script

Topics: Sentence, Word, Phrase Pages: 5 (1542 words) Published: November 26, 2012
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How to Paraphrase Effectively
“Paraphrase” is a verb which means to re-write a phrase or sentence with the same meaning but using different words. Paraphrasing is a very important skill for most English tests, including TOEFL iBT, IELTS and TOEIC Speaking and Writing. In TOEFL iBT, for instance, paraphrasing is an important skill in the reading section, in the listening section and, above all, in the speaking and writing sections of the test.

Here is a quick example of paraphrasing using a phrase from the paragraph above: 1. "Paraphrasing is a very important skill for most English tests." 2. "For many tests of English, being skilful at paraphrasing is extremely important." Notice how the paraphrased version (sentence 2) changes some vocabulary (e.g., “extremely” for “very”), changes the word order (e.g., “tests of English” for “English tests”) and changes the grammar (e.g., “being skilful at paraphrasing…” for “Paraphrasing is a very important skill…”) These are the three main ways to paraphrase and by combining all of these methods, you can achieve clear and accurate paraphrased sentences. The next sections will look at these methods in more detail.

Paraphrasing Method 1: Use Different Vocabulary with the Same Meaning Most students try to use this method, but actually it can be difficult to use. The reason is that although English has many synonyms such as ‘large’ or ‘big’, it is unusual for these words to have exactly the same meaning. So, if you try to use a lot of synonyms when you paraphrase, you might produce sentences that are not natural English. Unnatural sentences are likely to reduce your score more than small mistakes because the reader may not understand what you are trying to say.

For example, look at this original sentence and two paraphrased equivalents: 1. "It can be difficult to choose a suitable place to study English." 2. "It is often a challenge to pick up (x) a relevant (x) school to learn English." 3. "It is sometimes hard to select an appropriate place to learn English." For non-native speakers, these three sentences might look like they have the same meaning. For native speakers, however, sentence 2 is unnatural. The first problem is "pick up". This expression does NOT have the same meaning as "choose", so this part of the paraphrased sentence is actually wrong. The second problem is the word "relevant". In some cases, "relevant" and "suitable" are good synonyms but in this example they are not This article is copyright Higher Score, 2007. It may not be reproduced in whole or in part in any form without permission.

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How to Paraphrase Effectively
close in meaning at all. Sentence 3 is a much better paraphrase of sentence 1 because all of the words have the same meaning.
The best advice is to follow the “100% rule” for using synonyms: only use a synonym for a word if you are 100% certain that the new word has 100% the same meaning as the original word. If you are less than 100% certain, keep the same word and use either method two or method three to paraphrase your sentence.

Paraphrasing Method 2: Change the Order of Words
Changing the word order of a phrase or sentence is usually safer than using synonyms because the words are the same, so the meaning must be the same. However, it is not always easy to decide which words to move or to decide to which position the words should be moved Also, when you move a word you might need to change some other words, add some other words or cut some other words to ensure that the new sentence is grammatically correct. Here are two suggestions for how to change the word order without making errors: a. If the original sentence has two or more clauses, change the order of the clauses. 1. "If they have some help, most people can paraphrase effectively. However,...
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