Taj Mahal (Islamic Architecture)
It was in the memory of his beloved wife that Shah Jahan built a magnificent monument as a tribute to her, which we today known as the "Taj Mahal". The construction of Taj Mahal started in the year 1631. Masons, stonecutters, inlayers, carvers, painters, calligraphers, dome-builders and other artisans were requisitioned from the whole of the empire and also from Central Asia and Iran, and it took approximately 22 years to build what we see today. An epitome of love, it made use of the services of 22,000 laborers and 1,000 elephants. The monument was built entirely out of white marble, which was brought in from all over India and central Asia. After an expenditure of approximately 32 million rupees (approx. US $68000), Taj Mahal was finally completed in the year 1653. STRUCTURAL DETAILS OF TAJ MAHAL
The platform of Taj Mahal is 22 feet high and 313 feet2. Each tower is 133 feet tall. The Building is 186 feet high and 70 feet wide. Corner minarets are 137' tall. Main structure 186 feet on a side, dome to 187 feet. The mausoleum is 57 m (190 ft) square in plan. The central inner dome is 24.5 m (81 ft) high and 17.7 m (58 ft) in diameter, but is surmounted by an outer shell nearly 61 m (200). The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the principles of self-replicating geometry and symmetry of architectural elements. Its central dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter and rises to a height of 213 feet. It is flanked by four subsidiary domed chambers. The four graceful, slender minarets are 162.5 feet each. The entire mausoleum (inside as well as outside) is decorated with inlaid design of flowers and calligraphy using precious gems such as agate and jasper. The main archways, chiseled with passages from the Holy Qur’an and the bold scroll work of flowery pattern, give a captivating charm to its beauty. The central domed chamber and four adjoining chambers include many walls and panels of Islamic decoration. Section of Taj Mahal
Section of Taj Mahal
Finial: decorative crowning element of the Taj Mahal domes
Lotus decoration: depiction of lotus flower sculpted on tops of domes Onion Dome: massive outer dome of the tomb (also called an amrud or apple dome) Drum: cylindrical base of the onion dome, raising it from the main building Guldasta: decorative spire attached to the edge of supporting walls Chattri: a domed and columned kiosk
Spandrel: upper panels of an archway
Calligrpahy: stylised writing of verses from the Qu'ran framing main arches Arch: also called pishtaq (Persian word for portal projecting from the facade of a building) Dado: decorative sculpted panels lining lower walls
BASED ON GOLDEN RATIO:
A golden rectangle is a rectangle whose side lengths are in the golden ratio, one-to-phi, that is, approximately 1:1.618. A distinctive feature of this shape is that when a square section is removed, the remainder is another golden rectangle, that is, with the same proportions as the first. Square removal can be repeated infinitely, which leads to an approximation of the golden or Fibonacci spiral.
Taj Complex is basically constructed by using the unit called angulams, where each angulam is measures 1.763 cm. and 12 angulams mean 1 Vitasti. Units of measure mentioned in the Arthasastra. Taj Complex is basically constructed by using the unit called angulams, where each angulam is measures 1.763 cm. and 12 angulams mean 1 Vitasti. Units of measure mentioned in the Arthasastra. The...
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