The Spread of Protestantism and the Catholic Response
The Zwinglian Reformation
* The ideal of Christian unity was lost forever.
* Protestantism begins to divide
* Ulrich Zwingli, a priest in Zurich begins religious reforms by abolishing paintings/decorations from church walls, and making church service consist of scripture reading, prayer, and sermons. * Ulrich Zwingli wants to seek cooperate and ally with Martin Luther but couldn’t agree on the meaning of the sacrament of Communion * On October 1531, war between Zwingli’s protestant and Catholic States of Switzerland broke out, killing Zwingli, who was cut up into pieces and his ashes were spread out. The new leader is John Calvin. Calvin and Calvinism
* John Calvin was educated in his native France
* His works, Institutes of the Christian Religion, makes him well known through the protestant world * He believed everything of Martin Luther, except he placed much more emphasis on the all-powerful nature of God. * One of Calvin’s idea is predestination- God has predetermined who would be saved(elect) and who would be damned(reprobate) * The belief in predestination gave Calvinist’s the belief that they were doing it for God, making them determined to spread their faith. * In 1536, Calvin reforms the city of Geneva by creating a church gov that used both clergy and laity in the service of the church. * Consistory had the right to punish people who deviated from the church’s teaching ( discipline enforcers) * Geneva in turn became a powerful center for Protestantism * By mid-sixteenth century, Calvanism became the most important form of Protestantism The Reformation in England
* King Henry VIII wanted to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, because he wanted to marry Anne Boleyn to have a male heir. He was impatient with the pope’s unwillingness to annul his marriage and thus wanted to make his own church. * The archbishop of Canterbury, then nulled...
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