Approach is primarily founded on interrelationships and is based on a humanistic extension of the natural sciences (ontology, philosophy, sociology, political science, computer science, biology, engineering etc).
NB: - Organistaions take inputs of varying kinds and transform them through a series of processes into outputs. The org is essentially the transformation process of inputs into outputs.
Basic elements of a system
INPUTS((((( Organisation or transformation system((((( Output
Feedback loop used to show that outputs commonly have an effect upon the system, often returning as an input.
Nature of Systems:
1. Sub-Systems within each system, there may be a number of systems, each a separate entity but each forming an integral part of the whole. Outputs from one of the sub-systems are likely to form, at least in part, the inputs for another sub-system. Therefore the whole can be seen as a system of interdependent parts. Both constantly reacts and acts internally in relation to each other and externally in relation to the environment of the system.
NB Crucial in organization since any change within a particular sub-system will inevitably have repercussions throughout the whole system. Mgt. must understand and consider the inter-relationships and inter-dependence of the various parts which make up the organization.
2. Boundaries & the environment
A boundary exits around each system or sub-system, defining it & separating it from others.
Certain systems function entirely within their boundaries & are totally affected by anything outside (CLOSED SYSTEMS). Where flows occur across the boundary & factors outside the system affect it significantly (OPEN SYSTEMS).
Anything outside the boundary of a system with the potential to affect its operation constitutes the ‘environment’.
Managerial problems often arise at the boundaries of a system/ sub-system & events in the environment are often outside... [continues]
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