Systems Perspective and Strategic Marketing

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HUS- 743-23
Social Systems Integration
Systems Perspective and Strategic Marketing

Instructor: Dr. Szabi Ishtai-Zee
Student: Dawn Swartz
Date Due: 10/13/12
Date Submitted: 10/13/12

IA. Contrasting Characteristics of Relatively Open and Relatively Closed System
All systems are relatively open or relatively closed, which means, systems are either receptive or non-receptive to the movement of energy across its boundaries. A system is never completely open, because it would make it indistinguishable from its environment. Nor is a system completely closed, because then it would cease to exist (Anderson, Carter & Lowe, 1999, p. 30). There are two aspects which must occur in a relatively open system. The first is it must exchange information, energy, or material with its external environment, which is a back and forth flow moving across its boundary. The second aspect is it has to sustain the exchange of information, energy, or material within its internal subsystems. Human services agencies are an example of a relatively open system. They exchange energy with the environment, such as, funding sources, client referrals, or adhering to licensing requirements from the state of Pennsylvania. When this occurs the internal subsystems come into play, such as, the accounting department, residential services, direct care staff, and upper management. The ARC of Cumberland and Perry Counties (CPARC) provides services to adults with intellectual developmental disabilities (IDD). One of CPARC’s subsystems is residential services, which is another example of a relatively open system. It exchanges information with its external environment, such as, the Pennsylvania Office of Developmental Programs and Cumberland County MH/IDD. CPARC receives regulatory updates from them and in exchange provides them with fiscal and quality of services statistics. Mechanicsburg Apartment Program is operated by CPARC and is an example of a relatively closed system. It serves 18 clients either living in the apartment building owned by CPARC or in the individual apartments within the community. This program is a relatively self-contained and self-maintaining unit, because it has little interactions or exchanges with its environment. The staff has what it needs to operate the program and therefore rarely needs to obtain anything from the main office. The clients prefer to utilize the services in their community, so they do not engage in exchanges outside their boundary. Another example could be the way society is closed minded about their view of people with IDD. The literature showed people with disabilities are perceived as a burden on society, who is incapable of having normal social, financial, productive lives (Muthukrishna, Sokoya & Moodley, 2009). Also, according to Stichter, Herzog, Visovsky, Schmidt, Randolph, Schultz, and Gage (2010), people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) lack social competence. This draws negative responses and enhances the stereotypical judgments from others. Also, it hinders them from going outside of their system to have exchanges with others, in other words, to make friends. People with IDD need to be encouraged to maintain a relatively open system to be successful in the social world. Friendships or reciprocal interactions with other systems are essential for students with IDD because it promotes positive emotional well-being and offers protection from the negative impact of rejection. Studies show higher levels of achievement are attributed to having friends (Estell, Jones, Pearl, & Van Acker, 2009). IB. Explication of Strategic Marketing Characteristics

Strategic marketing is the concept of exchanges. It focuses on direct transactions/ exchanges between and organization and its various publics. It is the input, throughput, and output of publics that an organization depends on and without this the organization risks going into entropy. Input publics provide tangible and intangible resources,...
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