INTRODUCTION By tradition, organisations use HRD programs and training activities to address employee development, work performance and productivity issues and problems. These HRD programs and interventions are conventionally applied to provide induction training of newly employed employees into the organizations, provide basic skills and knowledge, upgrading existing capabilities and help in effective teamworking. Hence, to warrant that these goals are achieved, a systematic approach to planning, designing, delivering and evaluating HRD programs is critical. However, these designing HRD programs and activities involve a process, which is known as the four step systematic approach, involving the needs assessment, design, implementation and evaluation (Desimone, Werner and Harris, 2002:23), and be easily remembered and referred as the ‘why’, ‘how’, ‘where’, and the ‘when’ of HRD. Therefore, this paper will delineate the four-phase process approach to describe HRD efforts, namely, needs assessment, design, implementation and evaluation. THE SYSTEMATIC APPROACH IN HRD In the traditional context, Wilson (1999) suggests that T&D have been primarily concerned with carrying out the identification of training needs, planning and designing training, implementing and evaluating training activities. This process is called the ‘training cycle’ as shown in Figure 1. However, as views on the conventional training cycle have been challenged with the systematic approach to T&D, a different typology emerged that encompass a process of similar nature to T&D with the inclusion of strategy and involving other stakeholders at various stages of the process (Harrison, 2000). Hence, in the case of HRD being strategic and systematic, it has its starting point in the identification of business objectives or strategies, which can be seen in Figure 1. This systematic approach differs from the traditional approach, as shown in Figure 2, with the identification of training needs being replaced by the identification of organisation’s objectives or strategy (Winter, 1995). This description of the HRD process is simplified by Delahaye (2000) and Harrison (2000) that began with investigation, design and implementation, and end with evaluation in leading and managing organisational renewal for change management.
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*1 Associate Professor at the Faculty of Economics and Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400
Figure 1: The Classic Training Cycle (Wilson, 1999)
Plan & Design
Figure 2: The HRD Integrating Model (Winter, 1995)
Needs analysis of Organization objectives/strategy (Investigation) Need analysis
Plan & Design
Deliver Training Delivery & Implementation Needs Assessments and Analysis The first stage in the systematic HRD process is needs assessment and analysis, and it can be known as the “why” of HRD. Leigh et al (2000) stressed the importance of assessing and analysing needs because this stage builds the foundation by identifying the kinds of HRD intervention needed for an effective effort. However, Desimone et al (2002) contested that in...