1.types of prisons:
In Pakistan prisons are constitutionally under the provinces which are classified into four types, namely: (i) Central Prisons;
(ii) Special Prisons;
(iii) District Prisons; Class-I, II & III; and
* Central prisons have an authorized accommodation for more than 1000 prisoners, irrespective of the length of sentences. There should be a central prison in each zone/division of the province. * Women prison, open prison, Borstal institution and juvenile training centre or reformatory schools are deemed to be special prisons. * District prisons are prisons other than central prisons or special prisons and are class I, II or III. Class I prisons have capacity upto 500 and class II have intake upto 300. * Sub-jails are prisons other than central, district or special prisons.
The underlying principle in Pakistan for classification of prisoners is not security rating but personality traits, education, social status and pre-conviction as well as crime involvement records after conviction. There are three classes of prisoners in Pakistan under the Prisons Rules 1978: (1) Superior class;
(2) Ordinary class; and
(3) Political class.
Class ‘A’ comprises of prisoners who should have three qualifications: (i) They should be first offenders of good characters;
(ii) By social status , education and habit of life should have been accustomed to a superior made of living; and (iii) Should have not been convicted of offences of serious and pre-meditated violence. Islam does not allow classes in prisons on any grounds as it is discrimination on public charges to facilitate haves and deprive the have notes. Great scholars of Islam were imprisoned for no wrongs but they never claimed better class. Class ‘B’ consists of offenders who by social status, education or habit of life have been accustomed to a superior mode of living. Class ‘C’ consists of prisons who are not classified as ‘A’ or ‘B’ Class and are treated as ordinary prisoners being ordinary citizens as colonial legacy. 3.age & sex distribution of inmates:
In Pakistan Prison inmates are generally classified on sex and age under Prisons Act of 1894 read with Pakistan Prison Rules 1978 adopted by all the provinces, Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas governments. This classification is described in the next graph: Age & sex distribution of prison inmates in Pakistan under rules:
The same classification as for males.| Juveniles (below 18 years)| Adult Immature (eighteen years but below twenty one years)| Adults completing 21 year and above| Juvenile prison inmates are distributed under Prison Rules as: (i) Children – 7 years to 12 years;
(ii) Youthfulls – Above 12 years to 15 years
(iii) Adolescents – Above 15 years to below 18 years. prison management vs. prison adminstration:
The Preamble of the Pakistan Prison Rules, 1978 states that these are for the “Superintendence and Management of Prisons in Pakistan” on uniform pattern. The word “Administration” is conventional control under the Prisons Act, 1894 and operation of Prisoners Act 1900 by traditional methods. The term “management” used in Prison Rules 1978 as cited above is modern, rather a twenty first century scientifically objective system of managing institutional treatment by objectives (MBO). As such Prison Laws are the same old but Prison Rules are ultramodern. Anyhow the prison system in Pakistan is the same old mostly based on the same colonial structure. There are some changing patterns by prison administration concepts but still lot is to be done by new entrants to prison services to convert it into “Prison Management” as is the title and preamble of the book containing “Prison Code” to act upon the reformed Rules of 1978.
THE EXISTING PRISON MANAGEMENT IN...