System Design for Live Sound

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Proposal of a Sound System
AUD407 Advanced Audio System Design

Table of Contents
Site Assessment4
Environmental Analysis5
System Design Requirements5
The System8
Figure 1:Line Array Configuration8
Figure 2:Jsub Frequency Map9
Figure 3:Line Array Analysis10
Figure 4:Foldback Speaker Placement12
Signal Flow13
Sound Reinforcement Analysis14
“Rock” Band14
Stage Box/Mixer15
Overall Equipment List16
Figure 5:Power Distribution19
Watts Per Person FOH (peak)20

The event in which this proposal is catered for is a ‘carols by candlelight’ evening. The intended audience is comprised of children, adults, seniors and all people in-between. It is to be held at a local sporting ground with audience attendance numbers in the region of 2000 people.

Site Assessment
Below is an aerial map of the proposed event.

One can see that this location works well. With easy accessibility to all necessary facilities and ample parking space, there are no glaring problems. The power generator will be located next to the back stage area. Lighting can easily be setup on each corner of the field. Lighting is already present in the adjacent buildings allowing for easy navigation to the field area. The only slight issue that may arise is from people traveling from parking area 2 to the field. To ensure nobody gets lost, signs will be put in place. Temporary floor tiling will be used in the FOH engineers tent and where necessary (GreatMats, 2010).

Environmental Analysis

* Surfaces:Grass, dirt paths. Bring your own seating and chairs. Rather informal. * Noise:Present from adjoining road. Location is away from suburban areas. Noise restrictions apply yet are rarely enforced in this region. * Weather:Dry and sometimes windy. Subject to change.

* Rain:Stage will be covered. Audience members not under cover. In case of rain audience participants are advised to bring umbrellas. Rain not common in this region. * Temperature:Temperate climate. If audience participants feel the heat, first aid is near by.

System Design Requirements
This specific event consists of the following:
* An audience of approximately 1500-2000 people.
* Drum Kit.
* Electric Bass Guitar.
* Electric Guitar.
* Acoustic Guitar.
* Keyboard.
* 5 Solo Choir Vocalists.
* 30 piece children’s Choir.
Based on the system power per person rule, 5 watts per audience member is ideal for a low-key event (BS Sound;, 1998). This event however, pertains to a more sonically intense outcome consisting of a choir and a rock band that additionally will be playing in an outdoor scenario. Due to this, the power needed per person increases by over 100% to a fitting 16watts per person. This calculated based on the maximum possible audience attendance number.

“2000(people) X 16W = 32,000 Watts”

Crown Audio recommends the following:
* Rock music in a stadium, arena or amphitheater (100 to 300 feet from speaker to audience): At least 4,000 to 15,000 W * Rock music at a small outdoor festival. At least 1,000 to 3,000 W. (Crown Audio, 2007)

Bartman Audio recommends the following:
* Contemporary pop/light rock band - minimum of 8 watts per person (4,000 Watts would cover an audience of 500). * Hard rock or metal band - minimum of 12 watts per person (6,000 watts would cover an audience of 500). * Audience sizes over 2,000 - "Stadium" system recommended. Stadium system - 28,000 watts - 56,000 watts (Bartman Audio Production, 2006)

Keeping in mind that although a rock concert in an arena could be powered by 15,000 watts (allowing only 6 dB of headroom for peaks,) it is often the case that large touring sound companies using 80,000 to 400,000 watts total. This is needed to handle 20-to-24 dB peaks...
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