System Analysis and Design

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System Analysis and Design

Systems are created to solve problems. One can think of the systems approach as an organized way of dealing with a problem. In this dynamic world, The subject System Analysis and Design, mainly deals with the software development activities. Defining A System

A set of interrelated components
That interact
To achieve a goal
A collection of components that work together to realize some objective forms a system. Basically there are three major components in every system, namely input, processing and output. Data are facts that are collected, recorded, stored, and processed by an information system. Information is data that have been organized and processed to provide meaning to a user. Characteristics that make information useful:

Relevance
Reliability
CompletenessTimeliness
UnderstandabilityVerifiability
Accessibility

SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE
System life cycle is an organisational process of developing and maintaining systems. It helps in establishing a system project plan, because it gives overall list of processes and sub-processes required developing a system. System development life cycle means combination of various activities. In other words we can say that various activities put together are referred as system development life cycle. In the System Analysis and Design terminology, the system development life cycle means software development life cycle. Following are the different phases of software development cycle: •System study

Feasibility study
System analysis
System design
Coding
Testing
Implementation
Maintenance

PHASES OF SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE

(a) System Study
System study is the first stage of system development life cycle. This gives a clear picture of what actually the physical system is? In practice, the system study is done in two phases. In the first phase, the preliminary survey of the system is done which helps in identifying the scope of the system. The second phase of the system study is more detailed and in-depth study in which the identification of user’s requirement and the limitations and problems of the present system are studied. After completing the system study, a system proposal is prepared by the System Analyst (who studies the system) and placed before the user. The proposed system contains the findings of the present system and recommendations to overcome the limitations and problems of the present system in the light of the user’s requirements. To describe the system study phase more analytically, we would say that system study phase passes through the following steps: •problem identification and project initiation

background analysis
inference or findings

(b) Feasibility Study
On the basis of result of the initial study, feasibility study takes place. The feasibility study is basically the test of the proposed system in the light of its workability, meeting user’s requirements, effective use of resources and .of course, the cost effectiveness. The main goal of feasibility study is not to solve the problem but to achieve the scope. In the process of feasibility study, the cost and benefits are estimated with greater accuracy. (c) System Analysis

Assuming that a new system is to be developed, the next phase is system analysis. Analysis involved a detailed study of the current system, leading to specifications of a new system. Analysis is a detailed study of various operations performed by a system and their relationships within and outside the system. During analysis, data are collected on the available files, decision points and transactions handled by the present system. Interviews, on-site observation and questionnaire are the tools used for system analysis. Using the following steps it becomes easy to draw the exact boundary of the new system under consideration: •Keeping in view the problems and new requirements

Workout the pros and cons including new areas of the...
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