System Analysis and Design

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Systems Analysis and Design

Alan Dennis and Barbara Haley Wixom
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Slides by Fred Niederman
Copyright © 2000
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
*All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. *Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. *The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for redistribution or resale. *The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. Systems Analysis

Chapter 4
Key Definitions
*The As-Is system is the current system and may or may not be computerized

*The To-Be system is the new system that is based on updated requirements Key Ideas
*The goal of the analysis phase is to truly understand the requirements of the new system and develop a system that addresses them -- or decide a new system isn’t needed. *The line between systems analysis and systems design is very blurry.

THE ANALYSIS PROCESS
Analysis Across Areas
*Combines business and information technology
*Balance expertise of users and analysts
The SDLC Process
Three Steps of the Analysis Phase
*Understanding the “As-Is” system
*Identifying improvement opportunities
*Developing the “To-Be” system concept
Three Fundamental Analysis Strategies
*Business process automation (BPA)
*Business Process Improvement (BPI)
*Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
BUSINESS PROCESS AUTOMATION
Proposal Outline
*Table of contents
*Executive summary
*System request
*Work plan
*Analysis strategy
*Recommended system
*Feasibility analysis
*Process model
*Data Model
*Appendices
Business Process Automation
Identifying Improvements in As-Is Systems
*Problem Analysis
*Asking users to identify problems
*Rarely finds significant monetary benefits
*Root Cause Analysis
*Prioritizing problems
*Tracing symptoms to their causes
Root Cause Analysis
*Identify symptoms
*Trace each back to its causes
Root Cause Analysis Example
BUSINESS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT
Business Process Improvement
*Introducing evolutionary changes
Duration Analysis
*Calculate time needed for each process step
*Calculate time needed for overall process
*Compare the two
Develop process integration or parallelization
Activity-Based Costing
*Calculate cost of each process step
*Consider both direct and indirect costs
*Identify most costly steps and focus improvement efforts on them

Benchmarking
*Studying how other organizations perform the same business process *Informal benchmarking
*Check with customers
*Formal benchmarking
*Establish formal relationship with other organization
BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING
Business Process Reengineering
*Radical
redesign
of
business
processes
Outcome Analysis
*Consider desirable outcomes from customers’ perspective
*Consider what the organization could enable the customer to do Breaking Assumptions
*Identify fundamental business rules
*Systematically break each rule
*Identify effects on the business if rule is broken
Technology Analysis
*Analysts list important and interesting technologies
*Managers list important and interesting technologies
*The group identifies how each might be applied to the business Activity Elimination
*Identify what would happen if each organizational activity were eliminated *Use “force-fit” to test all possibilities
Proxy Benchmarking
*List similar industries
*Look for techniques from other industries that could be applied by the organization Process Simplification
*Eliminate complexity from routine transactions
*Concentrate separate processes on exception handling
Avoiding Classic Analysis Mistakes...
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