Synthetic Fibers Industry

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  • Topic: Fiber, Synthetic fiber, Fibers
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  • Published : March 24, 2013
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Synthetic Fibers Industry
Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by scientists to improve on naturally occurring animal and plant fibers. In general, syntheticfibers are created by forcing, usually through extrusion, fiber forming materials through holes (called spinnerets) into the air, forming a thread. Before synthetic fibers were developed, artificially manufactured fibers were made from cellulose, which comes from plants. These fibers are called cellulose fibers. Raw materials:

Synthetic fibers are made from synthesized polymers or small molecules. The compounds that are used to make these fibers come from raw materials such as petroleum based chemicals or petrochemicals. These materials are polymerized into a long, linear chemical that bond two adjacent carbon atoms. Differing chemical compounds will be used to produce different types of fibers. So The main raw material used for the production of synthetic fiber is BTX.

As a good quality Synthetic Fibers,It should have the following properties: * Heat-sensitive
* Resistant to most chemicals
* Resistant to insects, fungi and rot but when damp and warm may attract them * Low moisture absorbency
* Electrostatic
* Flame resistant
* Density or specific gravity
* Pilling
* Low melting temperature
* Extremely hazardous to the environment.
* Can shrink rap and suffocate the user.
* Can make you overheat
* Synthetic fibers do not depend either on an agricultural crop or on animal farming. * They are generally cheaper than natural fiber.
* Synthetic fibers posses unique characteristics which make them popular dress material. * They dry up quickly, are durable, readily available and easy to maintain. * Can make you get cold when wet

Why synthetic fibers are better than natural fibers:
* Synthetic fibers do not depend either on an agricultural crop or on animal farming. * They are generally cheaper than natural fiber.
* Synthetic fibers posses unique characteristics which make them popular dress material. * They dry up quickly, are durable, readily available and easy to maintain. Why synthetic fibers are not better than natural fibers:

* Synthetic fibers melt before burning
* Some electrical charge accumulates on the synthetic fibers. The electrical charge causes irritation of the skin. * Low melting temperature
* Extremely hazardous to the environment.
* Can shrink rap and suffocate the user.
* Can make you overheat
* Can make you cold when wet
Importance:
Synthetic fibers account for about half of all fiber usage, with applications in every field of fiber and textile technology. Although many classes of fiber based on synthetic polymers have been evaluated as potentially valuable commercial products, four of them - nylon, polyester, acrylic and polyolefin - dominate the market. These four account for approximately 98 per cent by volume of synthetic fiber production, with polyester alone accounting for around 60 per cent. Manufacturing: (Key Words)

There are several methods of manufacturing synthetic fibers but the most common is the Melt-Spinning Process. It involves heating the fiber until it begins to melt, then you must draw out the melt with tweezers as quickly as possible. The next step would be to draw the molecules by aligning them in a parallel arrangement. This brings the fibers closer together and allows them to crystallize and orient. Lastly, is Heat-Setting. This utilizes heat to permeate the shape and dimensions of the fabrics made from heat-sensitive fibers.

Chemical Reaction:
For polyesters, they are a diol and a diacid
Process Description:
Most synthetic and cellulosic manufactured fibers are created by “extrusion” — forcing a thick, viscous liquid (about the consistency of cold honey) through the tiny holes of a device called a spinneret to form continuous filaments of semi-solid polymer. In their initial state, the...
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