Preparation of Fruit Flavors (Pear)
Abstract. In this experiment an assigned Ester is prepared, particularly n-Propanol. The Preparation was done via Fischer reaction. In this reaction, a reflux set-up is required. The reflux set-up was used in the liquid-liquid extraction. After adding an immiscible solution to the compound containing n-Propanol, the mixture now will have two layer: the Organic and Aqueous layer. The organic layer is the extract needed and its % yield is computed resulting to 58.3%
Many of the processed foods that you buy today come with an ingredient label that lists "artificial flavors" as one of the key ingredients. Artificial flavors are simply chemical mixtures that mimic a natural flavor in some way. Anything that we smell has to contain some sort of volatile chemical -- a chemical that evaporates and enters a person's nose (The evaporated chemical comes in contact with sensory cells in the nose and activates them. In the case of taste, a chemical has to activate the taste buds. Taste is a fairly crude sense -- there are only four values that your tongue can sense (sweet, salty, sour, bitter) -- while the nose can sense thousands of different odors. Therefore most artificial flavors have both taste and smell components. Any natural flavor is normally quite complex, with dozens or hundreds of chemicals interacting to create the taste/smell. But it turns out that many flavors -- particularly fruit flavors -- have just one or a few dominant chemical components that carry the bulk of the taste/smell signal. Many of these chemicals are called esters. Esters have the structure of -COOR. Instead of the alcohol portion of thecarboxylic acid (-COOH), there is an ether portion. The low boiling, volatile esters are known for their "fruity" smell and flavor. They are used in artificial flavorings. (Operational Organic Chemistry, John W. Lehman, Third Edition, Prentice Hall, 1999). The preparation of the food flavours are done...
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