SITI AIDA BINTI IBRAHIM
Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree
of Master of Science
Thank you to Allah for His Blessing and giving me an ability and strength to complete this thesis.
Firstly, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor Dr. Norlia Baharun for her expert guidance, constant attention, valuable suggestions, enthusiastic support and personal concern during the research and through the course of my study. Her fruitful ideas throughout the research project has helped me accomplished this work successfully.
Special thanks to the Dean of School of Material and Mineral Resources Engineering, Associate Professor Dr. Khairun Azizi Azizli for her permission to let me use all the brilliant facilities and equipment in completing my project.
leadership, she has created a healthy learning environment in the school. I would also like to extend my sincere appreciation for all the lecturers in the school especially to Associate Professor Dr. Azizan Aziz for his support and guidance throughout my study. I would like to thank the technical staffs of School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, especially to Mdm. Fong Lee Lee, Mr. Shaarani, Miss Mahani and Mr. Hasnor for their various contributions in one way or another.
To my dear friends,
Nurul’Ain, Norwanis, Roshazita , Faizul, Shahrizam,
Suhaina, Dr. Hasmaliza, Dr. Zuhailawati and all close members of postgraduate room of School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, thank you for making my life in USM so colorful and enjoyable. The memory of our friendship will forever stay inside my heart.
Last, but not least to my family especially to my ever-loving mother whom are always on my side, Hajjah Rinah Binti Mohd. Jirin, Thank you for the support and the encouragement you gave me to pursue my dreams. Not to forget, my family members who always be there for me through my thick and thin.
May ALLAH bless all of us and only HE, the Almighty could repay all my debts to all of you.
Wassalamu’alaikum warahmatullah wabarakatuh.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF PLATES
LIST OF SYMBOLS
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
LIST OF APPENDICES
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS & SEMINARS
CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION
The importance of research
The objectives of the research
Scope of the research
CHAPTER TWO : LITERATURE REVIEW
Natural Occurrence of Zeolite
Synthesis of Zeolite
2.6.1 Zeolite in Adsorption and Separation
2.6.2 Zeolite in Ion Exchange
2.6.3 Zeolite in Catalysis
2.6.4 Other Application
Comparison Between Natural and Synthetic Zeolite
Sol-Gel Processing on Hydrothermal Condition
2.8.1 General Description
2.8.2 Application to Zeolite Synthesis
2.8.3 Factors Affecting The Zeolite Synthesis
CHAPTER THREE : MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL WORK
3.1.3 Anhydrous sodium aluminate
Sample Preparation and Experimental Procedure
3.2.1 Solution Preparation and Composition
3.2.2 Sequence of Mixing Order
3.2.3 Hydrothermal Treatment
3.2.4 Filtration, Washing and Drying
Characterization of The Synthesized Zeolite
3.3.1 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
3.3.2 Particle Size Analyzer
3.3.3 Determination of Specific Surface Area (BET)
3.3.4 Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FT-IR) Spectroscopy