Synthesis of Zeolite a

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  • Topic: Zeolite, Particle size distribution, Ion exchange
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SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ZEOLITES FROM SODIUM
ALUMINOSILICATE SOLUTION

by

SITI AIDA BINTI IBRAHIM

Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree
of Master of Science

August 2007

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thank you to Allah for His Blessing and giving me an ability and strength to complete this thesis.

Firstly, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor Dr. Norlia Baharun for her expert guidance, constant attention, valuable suggestions, enthusiastic support and personal concern during the research and through the course of my study. Her fruitful ideas throughout the research project has helped me accomplished this work successfully.

Special thanks to the Dean of School of Material and Mineral Resources Engineering, Associate Professor Dr. Khairun Azizi Azizli for her permission to let me use all the brilliant facilities and equipment in completing my project.

Under her

leadership, she has created a healthy learning environment in the school. I would also like to extend my sincere appreciation for all the lecturers in the school especially to Associate Professor Dr. Azizan Aziz for his support and guidance throughout my study. I would like to thank the technical staffs of School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, especially to Mdm. Fong Lee Lee, Mr. Shaarani, Miss Mahani and Mr. Hasnor for their various contributions in one way or another.

To my dear friends,

Nurul’Ain, Norwanis, Roshazita , Faizul, Shahrizam,

Suhaina, Dr. Hasmaliza, Dr. Zuhailawati and all close members of postgraduate room of School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, thank you for making my life in USM so colorful and enjoyable. The memory of our friendship will forever stay inside my heart.

ii

Last, but not least to my family especially to my ever-loving mother whom are always on my side, Hajjah Rinah Binti Mohd. Jirin, Thank you for the support and the encouragement you gave me to pursue my dreams. Not to forget, my family members who always be there for me through my thick and thin.

May ALLAH bless all of us and only HE, the Almighty could repay all my debts to all of you.

Wassalamu’alaikum warahmatullah wabarakatuh.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

iv

LIST OF TABLES

vii

LIST OF FIGURES

ix

LIST OF PLATES

xi

LIST OF SYMBOLS

xii

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

xiii

LIST OF APPENDICES

xiv

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS & SEMINARS

xiv

ABSTRAK

iv
xvii

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION
1.1

Background

1

1.2

The importance of research

4

1.3

The objectives of the research

5

1.4

Scope of the research

6

CHAPTER TWO : LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1

Introduction

8

2.2

Structure

9

2.3

Properties

15

2.4

Natural Occurrence of Zeolite

17

2.5

Synthesis of Zeolite

19

2.6

Application

23

2.6.1 Zeolite in Adsorption and Separation

23

2.6.2 Zeolite in Ion Exchange

25

2.6.3 Zeolite in Catalysis

31

2.6.4 Other Application

33

2.7

Comparison Between Natural and Synthetic Zeolite

34

2.8

Sol-Gel Processing on Hydrothermal Condition

38

2.8.1 General Description

38

iv

2.8.2 Application to Zeolite Synthesis

42

2.8.3 Factors Affecting The Zeolite Synthesis

46

CHAPTER THREE : MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL WORK
3.1

56

3.1.3 Anhydrous sodium aluminate

57

Sample Preparation and Experimental Procedure

57

3.2.1 Solution Preparation and Composition

58

3.2.2 Sequence of Mixing Order

61

3.2.3 Hydrothermal Treatment

61

3.2.4 Filtration, Washing and Drying

63

Characterization of The Synthesized Zeolite

64

3.3.1 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

64

3.3.2 Particle Size Analyzer

65

3.3.3 Determination of Specific Surface Area (BET)

65

3.3.4 Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FT-IR) Spectroscopy

66...
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