April 5, 2013
Results and Discussion
The weight of our n-Butyl Bromide sample (actual yield) was 0.09g. The percent yield was found to be 4.38%. Only 0.09g of the theoretical 2.055g yield was obtained. The boiling point was 104° C, which is higher than the literature value of 101° C. This is due to the sample being somewhat impure, as impurities tend to increase boiling point. When IR spectroscopy was performed, there were no OH stretches, meaning that the OH- was replaced successfully by the Br-, and the water was separated out. The weight of our t-Pentyl Chloride sample was 0.20g. The percent yield was calculated to be 4.17%. The theoretical yield is 0.959g. The boiling point of the sample was determined to be 88° C, which is higher than the literature value of 86° C. Again, impurities are the reason for this, as they can increase boiling point. There were no OH stretches on the IR spectroscopy, meaning that that there was no alcohol or water in the sample.
In this experiment, extraction and distillation techniques were used to synthesize pure samples of n-Butyl Bromide and t-Pentyl Chloride. Our percent yield was low for both of the samples. I believe that too much of the drying agent (granular NaSO4) was used, thus causing a low yield. Although there was a low percent yield, and the samples were somewhat impure (based on boiling points), it is evident from the IR spectroscopy of both samples that the formation of the alkyl halides was successful, and the water was successfully removed from each of the samples. This is true because of the absence of any type of OH stretch.