REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter intends to introduce the key concepts and theories relating to this research topic and provide an extensive review of past studies focusing on this research area. Firstly, concepts and theories about Santol (Sandoricum koetjape) are introduced. Secondly, concepts and theories relating to dyeing and mordants are included. Cotton and Piña cloth were also discussed. Thirdly, past studies about fruit dyes are reviewed.
Sandoricum koetjape or Santol is a tropical fruit that was introduced to India, Sri Lanka and many countries of South East Asia including Australia and U.S.A. Santol fruit are abundant in local markets during its season, July to October. It is a fast growing tree which can attain height up to 50 m, making it a good shade tree. Young branchlets are densely brown and hairy. The evergreen, or the deciduous, spirally arranged leaves are compound, with 3 leaflets, elliptic to oblong-ovate, 4 to 10 inches (20-25 cm) long, blunt at the base and pointed at the apex. The fruit grows 6 to 7.5 cm wide, yellow, each containing 4-5 brown colored inedible seeds. The pulp is sweet and sour.
There are 2 general types of santol, the yellow (formerly S. indicum or S. nervosum) and the red (formerly S. koetjape). The wood of santol can be employed for house-posts, interior construction, light- framing, barrels, cabinet work, boats, carts, sandal, butcher’s block, household utensils and carvings. When burned the wood emits and aromatic scent. In the Philippines, fresh leaves are placed on the body of a person with a fever to cause sweating and leaf decoction is used to bathe the patient. The astringent root is a potent remedy for diarrhea. Santol is made into a preserve or jelly. The young fruits are candied. The ripe fruits are fermented and mixed with rice to prepare an intoxicating drink. The roots are aromatic, carminative, antispasmodic, astringent and stomachic. The fruit is high in carbohydrates, fair in iron but low in calcium. It is also a fair source of vitamin B and a good source of Vitamin C containing 80-90 mg of this vitamin per 100 g of pulp. It is commonly cultivated throughout these regions and the fruits are abundant in the local markets. In Asia and Malaysia, the tree is valued not just for its fruit, but for its timber and as a shade tree for roadsides, being wind-resistant and non-littering. It flourishes in dry as well as moist areas of the Philippine lowlands. (Wikipedia)
A dye can generally be described as a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber. Both dyes and pigments appear to be colored because they absorb some wavelengths of light preferentially. Dyed flax fibers have been found in the Republic of Georgia dated back in a prehistoric cave to 36,000 BP. Archaeological evidence shows that, particularly in India and Phoenicia, dyeing has been extensively carried out for over 5000 years. The dyes were obtained from animal, vegetable or mineral origin, with no or very little processing. By far the greatest source of dyes has been from the plant kingdom, notably roots, berries, bark, leaves and wood, but only a few have ever been used on a commercial scale. (Wikipedia)
Most natural dyes need a mordant to fix the color to the fiber and increase lightfastness. Mordant literally means "to bite". The mordant is the chemical link that fixes the dye to a substrate by combining with the dye pigment to form an insoluble compound. It may be used for dyeing fabrics, or for intensifying stains in cell or tissue preparations. This chemical can be a salt or a hydroxide of aluminum or chromium. A variety of substrates can be mordanted and dyed: textiles,...