Synthesis and Chemiluminescence of Luminol

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4/27/11
SYNTHESIS AND CHEMILUMINESCENCE OF LUMINOL

Abstract: Chemiluminescence occurs in nature and can be found in everyday products. For example, the light omitted by fireflies, deep sea fish and glow sticks is a result of this process. Luminol was synthesized from from 3-nitrophthalic acid and then combined with potassium ferricyanide and hydrogen peroxide to omit a blue light. The product of this reaction is very unstable and is made by losing a nitrogen and the electrons go from an excited state to ground state and energy emitting as a photon creating the blue light.

Introduction: Chemiluminescence occurs in nature and can be found in everyday products. For example, the light omitted by fireflies, deep sea fish and glow sticks is a result of this process. The process can even be used to determine the presence of blood at a crime scene. Luminol and Chemiluminescence are very useful and play an in society and life. This experiment looks at the mechanism of Luminol.

Method:
A mixture of 1 g of 3-nitrophthalic acid and 2 mL of 8% aqueous hydrazine was heated in a 50 mL round bottom flask until the solid was dissolved and 3 mL of triethylene glycol was added to the mixture. Simple distillation was set up with a thermometer. The mixture was distilled until it reached 201°C and was then cooled back down to 100°C. Once the mixture was at 100°C, hot water was added. The flask was then cooled on ice and the solid was collected by vacuum filtration and washed two times with water. The solid was then put back in the flask with 5 mL of 3 M NaOH and 3 g of sodium hydrosulfite dyhydrate. The mixture was then boiled for five minutes and 2 mL glacial acetic acid was added to the flask and cooled on ice. The precipitate was collected and mixed in with 2 mL of 3 M NaOH and then diluted to a volume of 20 mL with water. Another solution was made with 4 mL of 3% aqueous potassium ferricyanide and 4 mL of 3% aqueous hydrogen peroxide and diluted the solution to a...
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