Syntax and Sentence

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Universitatea “ Dunǎrea de Jos” Galaţi
Facultatea de Litere
Departamentul de Engleza

LIMBA ENGLEZA CONTEMPORANA.
SINTAXA PROPOZITIEI

ANUL al II-lea

Conf.univ. dr. GABRIELA DIMA

Galaţi
2013

CONTENTS

Introductory Chapter: General Syntactic Concepts 6 Sentence /vs/ Clause 6
Parts of Sentence/Clause 7
Methods of Syntactic Description 7

Chapter 1. The Syntax of the Simple Sentence in
Traditional Grammar9
1.1. Parts of Sentence9
1. 1 .1. The Subject. Definitions9
1.1.1.1. Classification of Subjects 9
1.1.1.2. Subject Predicate Agreement11
1.1.1.3. Concluding Remarks12
1.1.1.4. Practical Applications12
1.1.2. The Predicate. Definitions13
1.1.2.1. Classification of Predicates14
1.1.2.2. Practical Applications15
1.1.3. The Object. Definition and Classification16
1.1.3.1. The Direct Object16
1.1.3.2. The Indirect Object18
1.1.3.3. The Prepositional Object18
1.1.3.4. Practical Applications18
1.1.4. The Adverbial Modifier. Definition.19
1.1.4.1. Classification of Adverbial Modifiers19
1.1.4.2. Practical Applications19
1.1.5. The Attribute 20
1.1.5.1. Practical Applications20
1.2. Sentential / Clausal Word Order and Syntactic Analysis 21
1.2.1.Practical Applications22

Chapter 2. The Syntax of the Clause in Structural
Grammar23
2.1. Structural Analytical Techniques23
2.1.1. Test Frames23
2.1.2. Immediate-Constituent Analysis24
2.2. Refinements to Structural Syntactic Analysis24
2.2.1. Word Level. Word Groups24
2.2.2. Sentence/Clause Level. Parts of Sentence/Clause26
2.2.3. Techniques of Syntactic Analysis 27
2.3. Practical Applications 30

Chapter 3. Final Evaluation Corpora 32 3.1. Text Analysis 32 3.2.Evaluation Test 32

References 35

Introductory Chapter: General Syntactic Concepts

Sentence /vs/ Clause
The word-concept syntax comes from the ancient Greek syntaxis meaning literally arrangement.Traditionally, it refers to the branch of grammar dealing with the formal patterns into which the words of a language are arranged in order to show connections of meaning within the sentence. In other words syntax deals with the way sentences are constructed so as to formulate understandable messages necessary to ensure successful communication among people ( Chomsky 1986 a). The sentence has been given innumerable definitions according to various approaches provided by philosophers, linguists, grammarians (Aarts 1997, Valin et al 1997, Huddleston 2002). In the history of linguistics, at least four principal types of sentence definition are known: logical, psychological, structural (or grammatical) and phonetic definitions (Crystal 1995). Psychological definitions are not typical of English grammar. Logical definitions predominated in the preceding periods of its development. Structural grammar definitions are based upon grammatical or phonetic criteria.Transformational grammar refrains from giving a definition of the sentence on the principle that the whole grammar of a language constitutes a definition of a sentence ( Chomsky 1957, 1965,1995). The definition we provide for the present course is that the sentence is the basic syntactic unit upon which a...
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