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Synoptic Gospel

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LIBERTY UNIVERSITY

THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM:

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM

AND DEFENSE OF MARKAN PRIORITY

A RESEARCH PAPERSUBMITTED TO DR. ROBERT KENDALL
FOR NEW TESTIMENT INTRODUCTION – NBST 525

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE MASTERS OF ARTS PASTORAL COUNSELING DEGREE
IN THE LIBERTY BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

BY

EDWIN KRZYZEK (STUDENT # 25767621)

LYNCHBURG, VIRGINIA
APRIL 2013
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION: UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM1
A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF SYNOPTIC RELATIONSHIPS2
Relationships in Vocabulary2
Relationships in Structure3
Relationships in Explanatory Material3
Relationships in Old Testament Quotation4
INVESTIGATIVE HISTORY OF SYNOPTIC RELATIONSHIPS4
The Early Church4
Modern Church6
PROPOSED SOLUTIONS TO THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM7
The Augustinian Proposal8
The Two-Gospel (Griesbach) Theory8
The Two-Document Hypothesis…………………………………………………………..9 The Four-Document Hypothesis10
MARKAN PRIORITY: A REASONABLE DEFENSE11
Synoptic Differences ……………………………………………………………...……. 11 Stylistic Features ……………………………………………………………………….. 12 Reasons for Mark ………………………………………………………………………. 12
CONCLUSION14
Bibliography15

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INTRODUCTION: UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM
When reading the Synoptic Gospels it is immediately apparent that similarities exist. The term synoptic means “presenting or taking the same or common view.” Since the first three books of the New Testament display such a high degree of agreement in the substance and arrangement, we say they are “synoptic.” In fact, the similarities are so significant that it appears that the authors must be referencing and borrowing material. While a substantial number of agreements exist, there are also many disagreements. How the three synoptic Gospels interrelate is what we define as the “Synoptic Problem.” Interestingly, calling it a “problem” presupposes that there is something to solve. However, the views of each...