Masele (Middle Low German) or Masel (Middle Dutch) which means "spot, blemish" An acute, contagious viral disease, usually occurring in childhood, characterized by eruption of red spots on the skin, fever, and catarrhal symptoms Also known as rubeola, hard measles, red measles, seven-day measles, eight-day measles, nine-day measles, 10-day measles, and morbilli.
Measles virus is the cause of measles.
Spherical, nonsegmented, single-stranded RNA virus in the Morbillivirus family Contains six structural proteins, three that are complexed to the RNA and three that are associated with the viral membrane envelope Two of the membrane envelope proteins are important in its pathogenesis The F (fusion) protein is responsible for fusion of virus and host cell membranes, viral penetration and hemolysis The H (hemagglutinin) protein is responsible for adsorption of the virus to cells. The virus is rapidly inactivated by heat, light, acidic pH, ether, and trypsin(an enzyme). It has a short survival time (under 2 hours) in the air, or on objects and surfaces.
Mode of Transmission
Airborne Transmission: Droplet inhalation (coughing and sneezing) Direct contact with infected nasal or throat secretions
usually 8-12 days on average
After the incubation period, only symptoms can occur.
Measles first gains access to the body via the direct contact with nasal or throat secretions of infected people or by airborne transmission. The primary site of infection is the respiratory epithelium of the nasopharynx. Two to three days after: A primary viraemia ensues which is responsible for spreading the virus throughout the rest of the R-E system and the respiratory system. Five to seven days after: A secondary viraemia follows whereby the virus is further spread to involve the skin, the viscera, kidney and bladder, lymphoid tissues, thymus, lymph nodes
Signs and Symptoms
Early measles symptoms can include:
High fever (up to 105°F or 40.6°C)
Redness and irritation of the eyes
Muscle and body aches
Swelling of the eyelids
Loss of Appetite
Koplik’s spots – one to two days before the rash appears, small red lesions with blue-white centers appear on the inside of the mouth and tongue, and occasionally on the whites of the eyes or inside the intestines.
Secondary bacterial infection
Pneumonia - is the main cause of death in measles
Otitis Media - inflammation of the middle ear
Giant-cell pneumonia (Hecht's pneumonia)
a protracted, fatal, interstitial viral pneumonitis seen only in children Eye conditions (corneal ulceration, keratitis, or blindness) Measles causes ear infections in nearly 1 out of every 10 children who get it. Inflammation of the Nervous System (meningitis, encephalitis) 1 child in every 1,000 who get measles will develop encephalitis. - an inflammation of the brain that can lead to convulsions, and can leave your child deaf or mentally retarded.) Thrombocytopenic purpura
Measles in pregnancy - can lead to miscarriage, premature delivery, or a low-birthweight baby.
Medical Intervention / Treatment
Intravenous (IV) fluids
Medications to control fever or pain
Antibiotics to treat secondary infections from bacteria
Good nursing care
§ Vitamin A as Part of Measles Treatment
Low serum levels of vitamin A are associated with severe disease due to measles In developing countries, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and severe measles are common. For these situations, the treatment of measles should include vitamin A medication for two days, starting as soon as a measles diagnosis is made. This treatment has been shown to decrease the risk of blindness and death. Pregnant women, infants younger than six to nine months,...