Midterm Examination
In
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SYMBOLIC LOGIC
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“Great knowledge comes to those who are willing to learn.”

Test I. Identification. Choose the correct answer from the choices provided inside the box. Hypothetical PropositionBroad Disjunctive~
Conditional PropositionConjunctive PropositionV
Disjunctive PropositionSymbolic Logic .
Strict Disjunctive=Ɔ

_____________1. This symbol is used to refer the word of negation “not”. _____________2. This symbol is used to refer to the hypothetical proposition “if . . . then”. _____________3. This symbol is used to connote that p and q are both true or if p and q are both false. _____________4. This symbol is used for strict disjunctives and broad disjunctives. _____________5. This symbol means that if p and q are both true, all other instances are false.

_____________6. It establishes an artificial language, which eliminates the vagueness of ordinary language. _____________7. It is usually a compound proposition, which contains a proposed or tentative explanation. _____________8. It is a compound proposition in which one clause asserts something as true provided that the other clause is true.

_____________9. It is a compound proposition in which one member or more than one member may be true. _____________10. It asserts that two alternatives cannot be true at the same time or both alternative may be false.

Test II. Determine the following Hypothetical Propositions as a. Strict Disjunctive,
b. Broad Disjunctive,
c. Conditional Proposition,
d. Categorical Proposition,
e. Conjunctive Proposition or
f. Not a Hypothetical Proposition.

_____________ 1. You are against the administration or you are not....

...INTRODUCTION
Logic is the theory of the way in which people reason, with the aim of studying the principles of valid reasoning. The study of logic is the effort to determine the conditions under which one is justified in passing from given statements, called premises, to a conclusion that is claimed to follow from them. Logical validity is a relationship between the premises and the conclusion such that if the premises are true then the conclusion is true.
There are several types of logic. The earliest and simplest of these is known as classical or traditional logic which was introduced by Aristotle who developed rules for correct syllogistic reasoning.
Modern Logic: In the middle of the 19th century, the British mathematicians George Boole and Augustus De Morgan opened a new field of logic, now known as symbolic or modern logic, which was further developed by the German mathematician Gottlob Frege and especially by the British mathematicians Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead in Principia Mathematica (3 volumes, 1910-13). The logical system of Russell and Whitehead covers a far greater range of possible arguments than those that can be cast into syllogistic form. It introduces symbols for complete sentences and for the conjunctions that connect them, such as “or,””and,” and “If . . . then. . . .” It has different symbols for the logical subject and the...

...Hawassa University
Logic and reasoning
Assignment
Name: Henok Meshesha
I.D. 0670/05 Techno.
Sec. 02
Source: Internet, References from library and Personal ideas.
The relevant of logic
Introduction
The term “logic” is used quite a lot, but not always in its technical sense. Logic, strictly speaking, is the science or study of how to evaluate arguments and reasoning.Logic is what allows us to distinguish correct reasoning from poor reasoning. Logic is important because it helps us reason correctly — without correct reasoning, we don’t have a viable means for knowing the truth or arriving at sound beliefs.
Logic is not a matter of opinion: when it comes to evaluating arguments, there are specific principles and criteria which should be used. If we use those principles and criteria, then we are using logic; if we aren’t using those principles and criteria, then we are not justified in claiming to use logic or be logical. This is important because sometimes people don’t realize that what sounds reasonable isn’t necessarily logical in the strict sense of the word.
Our ability to use reasoning is far from perfect, but it is also our most reliable and successful means for developing sound judgments about the world around us. Tools like habit, impulse, and tradition are also used quite...

...Philosophy
Essay 2: Use of LogicLogic plays a big role in our society today. In fact logic has played a big role in the advancement of civilization. There are many forms of logic and many different applications that go along with them. Logic seeks out the truth in statements through deduction and reasoning. Using logic one can test the validity of a statement just by understanding the format and the content of an argument. Logic is considered to be the science of reasoning and is mathematically inspired as it seeks an answer. Logic is not considered scientifically sound unless it is based off true premises. Sense logic is based off form it is safe to say that it is formal science.
Logic is said to have historically originated from the Ancient Greek Philosopher Aristotle. Using the teaching of universal definition from Socrates, Aristotle devised a logical system. “Aristotle holds that a proposition is a complex involving two terms, a subject and a predicate, each of which is represented grammatically with a noun. The logical form of a proposition is determined by its quantity and by it quality.”(King, Peter, and Stewart Shapiro. "THE HISTORY OF LOGIC"). Through investigation of the relationship the two terms shared Aristotle theorized that if in certain form one could determine the validity of an argument....

...Logic and Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking
August 15, 2005
Abstract
I will focus on logic and its relation to critical thinking. Furthermore, I will describe my perceptions and how they distort reality. I will then give a brief explanation of an experience in my life where my views were distorted. The barriers that stop me from having a clear reality will follow. Lastly, I will explain the cycle of the critical thinking process and how it can be influenced to change.
A Complex Inner Reality
I find the nature of logic and its relation to critical thinking complex. I think it is important to understand how I think and make the unknown number of decisions I make everyday. "If we do not understand the workings of the brain, if we cannot enter its inner sanctum and unfold its mystery, then how can we define thinking?" (Thinking, 1999) Why do I have the perceptions that I have? Furthermore, I will discuss my own perceptual process and the types of perceptual barriers that influence my views. Lastly, I will explain the critical-thinking process and how it is manipulated by my perceptions.
Logic helps guide me through the critical-thinking process. Logic forces me to think about the out come of certain propositions before I ask a question. I ask myself, "Will this question get me to where I want to go?" Until I discover a beneficial question, I cannot start to critically think. Critical...

...Nature or Logic and Perception
Outline:
1. Definition of logic and its connection with critical thinking.
2. An everyday example is given when use of logic and critical thinking takes place.
3. Nature of logic defined.
4. Perceptual shortcuts and factors influencing it.
5. How these shortcuts affect our decisions.
6. My personal experience of perceptual shortcut.
7. What I learned from this experience.
8. Importance oflogic and critical thinking.
9. Resources
Abstract:
This paper is aimed at the relation logic has with perception. It kicks off with the meaning and process of logic and how it then relates to critical thinking. It further gives a very common example of how one makes a decision with the help of his/ her critical thinking. We then find out what perceptual shortcuts are and how they are formed and what influences it. The paper then goes on to explain in detail about an incident in my life where my perception of the situation was far from the actual reality. The paper wraps up with my final thoughts of how nature of logic affects thinking process.
Webster's dictionary defines logic as the science dealing with the principles of reasoning, especially of the method and validity of deductive reasoning. In layman's terms, the use of logic within our thinking allows us the ability to discern and reason...

...What is LOGIC?
* “Logos” (λόϒός) – word, reason or principle.
* Logic – science and art of correct reasoning.
* Systematized
* Evokes ORDER.
* What does Logic put into order?
All men are mammals.
All students are men.
Therefore all students are mammals.
All monkeys eat banana.
Diego eats banana.
Therefore, Diego is a monkey.
Formal Logic – concerned with pattern and structure.
MaterialLogic – concerned with truth or correctness.
* What logic puts in order is the way we reason out.
* Logic makes explicit the rules of reasoning.
* Inference – the process of deducing or extracting a statement.
* Argument – the verbal expression of inference.
* Syllogism – the format of arguments with three statements.
* Conclusion – the statement being supported.
* Premises – the statement/s that support/s the conclusion.
Key Terms
PREMISES
* ARGUMENT INFERENCE
CONCLUSION
SYLLOGISM
What is the importance of studying the Arguments?
* The answer:
It is the way we support our claims to truth and validity.
* Truth and validity are the two aspects that measure the worth of an argument.
What is TRUTH in Logic?
* Truth – the correspondence or equivalence...

...opinion
F. criteria for evidence
1.relevant
2.representative
3.typical
4.sufficient
G. Documentation of evidence
1.document
2.Documentation
3.plagiarism
4.common knowledge
H. Dealing with the opposition
1.refutation
2.refute
3.straw man
I. Understanding Rogerian Argument
1. Rogerian argument
IV. Using Deductive and Inductive Arguments
A. Deductive reasoning
B. Inductive reasoning
C. Using deductive arguments
1.syllogism
2.major premise
3.minor premise
4.conclusion
5.evidence
6.valid
7.undistributed
8.distributed
9.true
10.sound
11.self-evidence
D. Using Inductive Arguments
1.hypothesis
2.inference
3.jumping to a conclusion
4.inductive leap
F. Using Toulmin Logic
1. Toulmic logic
2. Claims
3. grounds
4.warrant
G .Recognizing Fallacies
1.fallacies
2.Begging the question
3. Argument from Analogy
4.Personal Attack (Argument Ad Hominem
5.Jumping to a conclusion
6. False Dilemma (Either/ Or Fallacy)
7.Equivocation
8. Red Herring
9. You Also (Tu Quoque)
10.Appeal to Doubtful Authority
11.Misleading Statistics
12. Non Sequitur ( It does not follow)
H. Using transitions
1.transitional word
2.Phrases
V. Structuring an Argumentative Essay
1. introduction
2. body
3. conclusion
VI. Revising an Argumentative Essay
VII. Editing an Argumentative Essay
You have many opportunities when you graduated. You can choose to go to college or go to the...

...
CHAPTER 2
LOGIC
Introduction:
Logic is the discipline that deals with the methods of reasoning. On an elementary level, logic provides rules and techniques for determining whether a given argument is valid. Logical reasoning is used in Computer Science to verify (menentusahkan) the correctness (kesahihan) of programs and to prove (membuktikan) theorems.
2.1 Proposition and Logical Operations
• Statement or proposition → declarative sentence that is either true or false, but not both
Example 1: Which of the following are statements? (a) The earth is round
(b) 3 + 7 = 8
(c) Do you speak English? (d) 3 – x = 5
(e) Take two aspirins
(f) The temperature is 35oC
(g) The sun will come out tomorrow
2.1.1 Logical connectives and compound statements
• In logic, the letters p, q, r… denote propositional variables; that is, variables that can be replaced by statements
Example 2: p: The sun is shining today
q: It is cold
r: 3 x 4 = 16
• Statements or propositional variables can be combined by logical connectives (pengait logik) to obtained compound statements (pernyataan majmuk)
Example 3: Statements p and q in example 2 can be combined by the connective and to form the compound statement...