1. Read the chapter syllogism.2. what are kind of syllogism?Types of syllogismAlthough there are infinitely many possible syllogisms, there are only a finite number of logically distinct types. We shall classify and enumerate them below. Note that the syllogisms above share the same abstract form:Major premise: All M are P.Minor premise: All S are M.Conclusion: All S are P.The premises and conclusion of a syllogism can be any of four types, which are labelled by letters[1] as follows. The meaning of the letters is given by the table:code quantifier subject copula predicate type exampleA All S are P universal affirmatives All humans are mortal.E No S are P universal negatives No humans are perfect.I Some S are P particular affirmatives Some humans are healthy.O Some S are not P particular negatives Some humans are not clever.(See Square of opposition for a discussion of the logical relationships between these types of propositions.)In Analytics, Aristotle mostly uses the letters A, B and C as term place holders, rather than giving concrete examples, an innovation at the time. It is traditional to use is rather than are as the copula, hence All A is B rather than All As are Bs It is traditional and convenient practice to use a,e,i,o as infix operators to enable the categorical statements to be written succinctly thus:Form ShorthandAll A is B AaBNo A is B AeBSome A is B AiBSome A is not B AoB 3. What are 3 part of a syllogism?A categorical syllogism consists of three parts: the major premise, the minor premise and the conclusion. Each part is a categorical proposition, and each categorical proposition contains two categorical terms. In Aristotle, each of the premises is in the form "All A are B," "Some A are B", "No A are B" or "Some A are not B", where "A" is one term and "B" is another. "All A are B," and "No A are B" are termeduniversal propositions; "Some A are B" and "Some A are not B" are termed particular propositions. More modern logicians allow some variation. Each of the premises has one term in common with the conclusion: in a major premise, this is the major term (i.e., the predicate of the conclusion); in a minor premise, it is the minor term (the subject) of the conclusion. For example: Major premise: All men are mortal.
Minor premise: All Greeks are men.
Conclusion: All Greeks are mortal.
Each of the three distinct terms represents a category. In the above example, "men", "mortal", and "Greeks". "Mortal" is the major term, "Greeks" the minor term. The premises also have one term in common with each other, which is known as the middle term; in this example, "men". Both of the premises are universal, as is the conclusion. Major premise: All mortals die.
Minor premise: Some men are mortals.
Conclusion: Some men die.
Here, the major term is "die", the minor term is "men", and the middle term is "mortals". The major premise is universal; the minor premise and the conclusion are particular. A sorites is a form of argument in which a series of incomplete syllogisms is so arranged that the predicate of each premise forms the subject of the next until the subject of the first is joined with the predicate of the last in the conclusion. For example, if one argues that a given number of grains of sand does not make a heap and that an additional grain does not either, then to conclude that no additional amount of sand will make a heap is to construct a sorites argument. 4. What is major / minor / middle term ?major term : is the predicate term of the conclusion of a categorical syllogism. It appears in the major premise along with the middle term and not the minor term. It is an end term (meaning not the middle term). Example:
Major premise: All men are mortal.
Minor premise: Socrates is a man.
Conclusion: Therefore Socrates is mortal.
The major term is bolded above.
minor term : is the subject term of the conclusion of a categorical syllogism. It also appears in the minor premise together with the middle term....
...University of Phoenix Material
Syllogisms & Logic
PART I: SYLLOGISMS
To be a valid syllogism, the conclusion must be proven by the reasons. Carefully study the following syllogisms and decide if they are valid or invalid:
1. All zebras are striped animals.
No zebras are polar bears.
Therefore, no polar bears are striped animals.
2. All clowns are funny individuals.
Some sad people are clowns.
Therefore, some sad people are funny individuals.
3. Some sticky substances are yucky things.
All taffy is a sticky substance.
Therefore, some taffy is a yucky thing.
4. All items made of gold are expensive items.
Some rings are items made of gold.
Therefore, some rings are expensive items.
5. All flies are winged creatures.
All butterflies are winged creatures.
Therefore, all butterflies are flies.
The following are examples of syllogistic arguments that are missing the conclusions. Study the two reasons very carefully and complete the syllogism with the conclusion that logically follows.
6. All fragile things are breakable things.
Some glasses are fragile things.
Therefore
7. All mammals are warmblooded animals.
All whales are mammals.
Therefore
8. All books are things with pages.
Some books are mysteries.
Therefore
9. All...
...Standard Form Categorical SyllogismsSYLLOGISMS
* A syllogism is composed of two statements, from which a third one, the conclusion, is inferred.
CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISMS
* Are syllogisms made up of three categorical propositions.
* They are a type of deductive argument, that is, the conclusion (provided the argument form is valid) follows with necessity from the premises.
TWO EXAMPLES OF CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISMS
1.) All Greeks are mortal.
All Athenians are Greeks.
Therefore all Athenians are mortal.
2.) All mammals are animals.
All humans are mammals.
Therefore all humans are animals
These are arguments typically known as syllogism. It has been studied and taught for more than 2 centuries.
Mood and Figure
* Every standard form categorical syllogism will have three terms, with each one used twice in the three propositions which make up the syllogism.
* The predicate term will be used in the major premise and the conclusion, the subject term in the minor premise and conclusion and the middle term in the two...
...to test quickly syllogisms is the Venn Diagram technique. This class assumes you are already familiar with diagramming categorical propositions. You might wish to review these now: Venn Diagrams. 
 A. A syllogism is a two premiss argument having three terms, each of which is used twice in the argument. 
 B. Each term ( major, minor, and middle terms) can be represented by a circle. 
 C. Since a syllogism is valid if and only if the premisses entail the conclusion, diagramming the premisses will reveal the logical geography of the conclusion in a valid syllogism. If the syllogism is invalid, then diagramming the premisses is insufficient to show the conclusion must follow. 
 D. Since we have three classes, we expect to have three overlapping circles. 
1. The area in the denoted circle represents where members of the class would be, and the area outside the circle represents all other individuals (the complementary class). The various area of the diagram are noted above. 
  2. Shading represents the knowledge that no individual exists in that area. Empty space represents the fact that no information is known about that area. 
  3. An "X" represents "at least one (individual)" and so corresponds with the word "some." 

 
  II. Some typical examples of syllogisms are shown here by...
...Categorical Syllogism
I. Definition
II. Three categorical propositions
III. General Rules
1) Number of terms in the syllogism.
2) How to determine the three terms in the syllogism.
3) Distribution of the major and minor terms in the syllogism.
4) Distribution of the major and minor terms in the syllogism.
5) The quality of the premises.
6) The quality of the premises.
7) The quality of the premises.
8) The quantity of the premises.
9) The quantity of the premises.
IV. Figure
1) SUBPRE (Subjectpredicate)
2) PREPRE (Predicatepredicate)
3) SUBSUB (Subjectsubject)
4) PRESUB (Predicatesubject)
V. Moods
1) SUBPRE (AA, AI, EA, EI) (AAA)
2) PREPRE (AE, AO,EA, EI) (AEE)
3) SUBSUB (AA, AI, EA, EI, IA, OA) (AAI)
4) PRESUB (AA, AE, EA, EI, IA) (EAO)
Categorical Syllogism
I. Definition
Syllogism is a mediate inference because the agreement or disagreement between two ideas or propositions is known through the mediation of a third idea or proposition. It is a process of reasoning or inference where one can determine the agreement or disagreement between two ideas with the third idea and from which deductively/inductively form a conclusion.
II. Three categorical propositions
1) Major Premise is the predicate of...
...Aristotle's enthymeme is also known of as the rhetorical syllogism. It is a technique of persuasion, engaging one's emotions, ethics and logic by using rhetoric.
By Doug Frame on Jan 20, 2010
In explaining this device Aristotle references his Rhetoric, Prior Analytics, and Topics as well as other of his books. While Aristotle did not favor using persuasion in an unethical fashion, it became necessary to explain the enthymeme in order to refute other less ethical enthymemes that were used by some sophists of the time. To understand the enthymeme or rhetorical syllogism one must first understand a syllogism.
The Syllogism  Validity and Soundness
A normal syllogism has 2 premises and a conclusion. For example one could say the following:
All Men are Mortal (premise)
Socrates is a Man (premise)
Therefore Socrates is a Mortal (conclusion)
This is a valid and sound syllogism. Validity refers to when the conclusion follows from the premises, and a sound argument is a valid argument plus the premises are true. In the enthymeme one line or more in the syllogism is implied, and therefore not explicitly stated. For example in the following truncated syllogism, the premise "Socrates is a Man" is implied, and still the premises and the conclusion are clear.
All Men are Mortal (premise)
Therefore...
...
CHAPTER V
The Categorical Syllogism
Definition:
Categorical Syllogism
* A verbal expression of an inference.
* It is “an oral or written discourse showing the agreement or disagreement between two terms on the basis of their respective relation to a third term.
* It is also an “an any argumentation in which, from two propositions called the conclusion, which is so related to the premises taken jointly that if the premises are true, the conclusion must also be true.
* It must always have that SEQUENTIAL RELATION as a differentiating mark of a true and valid syllogism from what is not.
Examples:
All creatures are mortal.
But a person is a creature.
Therefore, a person is a mortal.
*A syllogism is called “categorical”, if the premises and the conclusion composing it are categorical propositions expressed in a declarative form.
Sequential Relation
* The interdependence of the premises upon one another.
* Indicated by the presence of a middle term in the premises.
Components of a Categorical Syllogism
1. Premises (two propositions)
* Vehicles for truths assumed to be contained by them
* These truths give rise to a new knowledge or truth in the conclusion.
Classifications of premises:
a) Major premise
* First proposition in the...
...Reasoning
What is reasoning ?
It is also a kind of thinking but different from it, in the sense there is checking and re  checking of the conclusion arrived at based on certain facts so reasoning is defined as '' a process of arriving at a new judgement on the basis of one or more judgement,'' Reasoning is the mental activity used in and argument, proof, or demonstration, reasoning is generally associated with rules and methods and formal laws of logic but many people reason and argue without being consciously aware of it. For example when a dog comes back after seeing the master enter his car, when we expect a letter from a friend or turn to the gate on hearing a noise. We are thinking and reasoning without realizing it.
Reasoning is a way of solving a problem or meeting a new situation, perception imagination and memory are closely related to reasoning for the help is assessing the situation and find out alternate solution of the problem.
Inference is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.[1] The conclusion drawn is also called an idiomatic. The laws of valid inference are studied in the field of logic.
Human inference (i.e. how humans draw conclusions) is traditionally studied within the field of cognitive psychology; artificial intelligence researchers develop automated inference systems to emulate human...
...along with some interesting syllogisms that provide validity and soundness
Interestingly enough, the author supplies the reader with the intrinsic motives of many of the characters, demonstrating their true nature as one read’s along. The first syllogism we encounter states,“ What strikes us about the second Mrs. de Winter is her timidity, her prepubescence, her asexuality. The way she dresses in sexless sweaters and plain shoes suggest a vicar’s daughter rather than a worldly man’s wife” (134). The first premise that indicates that the second Mrs. de Winter is timid and lacks the sexual attraction to anyone, which ties to the conclusion that she portrays the role of a vicar’s daughter rather than a worldly man’s wife. The name for the second Mrs. de Winter is never given reinforcing her invisibility throughout the story. The second premise goes in more in depth by giving the vivid picture on the second Mrs. de winter dresses in sweats and plain shoes and not giving her the role of loyalty. It can be argued that by the way she dresses, she has no control over her and over the house, comparing her more to lowrank label known as vicar’s daughter. The way she dresses lacks the reinforcement of her role in society because she simply does not dress to impress, but rather just to stay comfortable making the connection between her asexuality and the label the author gives her as a vicar’s daughter as valid syllogism....
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