Syllabus on Environmental Sanitation

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Introduction to fact sheets on water

Introduction to fact sheets on water
Introduction to fact sheets on sanitation
Introduction to fact sheets on hygiene education

The quantity and quality of the water that we drink is directly linked to health. If the water is contaminated with germs or chemicals, health will be affected. Outbreaks of diseases transmitted by water have a major impact on human health. Examples of diseases which can be transmitted by water include cholera, typhoid, hepatitis Aand many diarrhoea1 diseases. All of these diseases can also be spread by other means, but the quality of public water supplies is particularly important because such supplies are capable of transmitting contaminated water to many people. The diseases mentioned above are transmitted through water when it is contaminated by human faeces. For this reason, water quality monitoring should include testing for indicators of faecal contamination such as thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms. Water sources

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Fact sheet 2.1: Sanitary inspections [pdf 347kb]
Fact sheet 2.2: Dug wells [pdf 339kb]
Fact sheet 2.3: Boreholes and tubewells [pdf 282kb]
Fact sheet 2.4: Springs [pdf 443kb]
Fact sheet 2.5: Infiltration galleries [pdf 151kb]
Fact sheet 2.6: Rainwater collection [pdf 288kb]
Fact sheet 2.7: Surface water abstraction [pdf 336kb] Fact sheet 2.8: Water treatment [pdf 219kb] Fact sheet 2.9: Flow measurement and control [pdf 413kb]
Fact sheet 2.10: Simple sedimentation [pdf 103kb]
Fact sheet 2.11: Pre-filtration [pdf 157kb]
Fact sheet 2.12: Slow sand filtration [pdf 349kb]
Fact sheet 1.13: Coagulation, flocculation and clarification [pdf 205kb] Fact sheet 2.14: Rapid sand filtration [pdf 187kb]
Fact sheet 1.15: Storage tanks [pdf 142kb]
Fact sheet 2.16: Disinfectants [pdf 262kb]
Fact sheet 2.17: Chlorination concepts [pdf 260kb]
Fact sheet 2.18: Chlorine gas or liquid in cylinders [pdf 177kb] Fact sheet 2.19: Calcium hypochlorite [pdf 223kb]
Fact sheet 2.20: Sodium hypochlorite [pdf 162kb]
Fact sheet 2.21: Continuous chlorination of dug wells [pdf 334kb] Fact sheet 2.22: Dosing hypochlorite solutions [pdf 283kb]
Fact sheet 2.23: Dosing chlorine from cylinders [pdf 205kb] Fact sheet 2.24: Hypochlorite tablet dosers [pdf 57kb]
Fact sheet 2.25: Cleaning and disinfection of wells [pdf 271kb] Fact sheet 2.26: Cleaning and disinfection of storage tanks [pdf 215kb] Fact sheet 2.27: Cleaning and disinfection of pipelines [pdf 259kb] Fact sheet 2.28: Cleaning and disinfection of tanker trucks [pdf 268kb] Fact sheet 2.29: Water quality monitoring [pdf 226kb]

Fact sheet 2.30: Chlorine monitoring at point sources and in piped distribution systems [pdf 329kb] Fact sheet 2.31: Chlorine testing [pdf 232kb]
Fact sheet 2.32: Bacteriological testing [pdf 131kb]
Fact sheet 2.33: Turbidity measurement [pdf 72kb]
Fact sheet 2.34: Household water treatment and storage [pdf 386kb]

Water sources can include rainwater, surface water (rivers, streams, lakes) and groundwater (from wells and springs). In general, it is cheaper to protect good quality groundwater supplies from contamination than to apply extensive treatment to sources that are already contaminated. Groundwater sources are often of good quality and may only require source protection and disinfection in order to provide agood quality source of water for drinking. Surface waters are often contaminated and will require treatment before being used. Where treatment of water sources is required, it is important to select the best source available for the supply. Fact Sheet 2.1 describes how to carry out on-site inspections of water supplies to identify actual and potential sources of contamination, while Fact Sheets 2.2 to 2.7 deal with the upgrading of specific types of water sources. Water treatment

The purpose of water treatment is to remove substances which may be dangerous to human...
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