Burke-Litwin Change Model:
External environment: The key external factors that have an impact on the organization must be identified and their direct and indirect impact on the organization should be clearly established. * Steve Jobs took time to identify these items upon his return to Apple. He identified items such the fact Apple had isolated itself and need to create partnerships with other companies i.e. att&t. The appearance of Apple’s products had to be modified to appeal to new generation. Jobs also identified that fact that Apple had to step up its game or it would considered obsolete, i.e. ipad, ipod, iphone. Mission and Strategy: the vision, mission and the strategy of the organization, as defined by the top management should be examined in terms of the employees’ point-of-view about them. * Job redefined Apple’s Mission and Strategy as: “Bringing the best personal computing, mobile communication, and portable digital music and video experience to consumers, students, educators, businesses, and government agencies through its innovative hardware, software, peripherals, services, and Internet offerings.” Leadership: A study of the leadership structure of the organization should be carried out, which clearly identifies the chief role models in the organization. Since the resignation of Steve Jobs, the current leaders at Apple, Inc. are Tim Cook, CEO; Eddy Cue Senior Vice President Internet Software and Services; Craig Federighi, Senior Vice President Software Engineering; Jonathan Ive as Senior Vice President of Industrial Design; Bob Mansfield as Senior Vice President of Technologies; Peter Oppenheimer Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer; Dan Riccio Senior Vice President of Hardware Engineering; Philip Schiller as Senior Vice President of Worldwide Product Marketing; Bruce Sewell Senior Vice President and General Counsel; and Jeff Williams Senior Vice President of Operations.
* The Leadership dimension considers who provides overall direction for the organization? Who are the role models? What is the style of leadership? What are the perspectives of employees? Many things can cause issues in this area in particular area, such as if the leader lacks the vision and does not have a clear process on how to make a change. If that happens, then the employees can lose faith in the organization's leadership and the direction of the company’s future. When employee begin to feel that way they become insecure about their future with company due to job instability and will resist change because in their eyes they are protecting their jobs. Organizational Culture: An organizational culture study should seek information on the explicit as well as the implied rules, regulations, customs, principles, and values that influence the organizational behavior. * When Jobs returned to Apple, he instituted two cultural changes: he encouraged debate on ideas, and he created a vision that employees could believe in. By implementing these two changes, employees felt that their input was important and that they were a part of something bigger than themselves. Such feelings have created a sense of loyalty among many at Apple. Apple prides itself on its unique corporate culture. On its job site for corporate employees, it ensures potential applicants that the organization has a flat structure, lacking the layers of bureaucracy of other corporations
* The concept of evangelism is an important component of Apple’s culture. Corporate evangelists refer to people who extensively promote a corporation’s products. Apple even had a chief evangelist whose job was to spread the message about Apple and gain support for its products. However, as the name evangelism implies, the role of evangelist takes on greater meaning. Evangelists believe strongly in the company and will spread that belief to others, who in turn will convince other people. Therefore, evangelists are not only employees...
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