inhibitors, mycotoxin binders, and antioxidants
Jay Y. Jacela, DVM; Joel M. DeRouchey, PhD; Mike D. Tokach, PhD; Robert D. Goodband, PhD; Jim L. Nelssen, PhD; David G. Renter, DVM, PhD; Steve S. Dritz, DVM, PhD
Peer reviewed Practice tip
This is the third in a series of peer-reviewed practice tip articles, each including two or three fact sheets on feed additives for swine. Previous practice tips included fact sheets on acidifi ers and antibiotics in the September-October issue (J Swine Health Prod. 2009;17:270-275) and on carcass modifi ers, carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, and proteases, and anthelmintics in the November-December issue (J Swine Health Prod. 2009;17:325-332). Future fact-sheet topics will include high levels of copper and zinc; phytase; phytogenic feed additives (phytobiotics-botanicals); and probiotics and prebiotics.
JYJ, DGR, SSD: Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. JMD, MDT, RDG, JLN: Department of Animal Science and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. Corresponding author: Dr Jay Y. Jacela, I-102 Mosier Hall, 1800 Denison Avenue, Manhattan, KS 66506; Tel: 785-532-4845; E-mail: jjacela@vet. ksu.edu.
This article is available online athttp://
Jacela JY, DeRouchey JM, Tokach MD, et al. Feed additives for swine: Fact sheets – fl avors and mold inhibitors, mycotoxin binders, and antioxidants. J Swine Health Prod. 2010;18(1):27–32.
28 Journal of Swine Health and Production — January and February 2010 FACT Sheet: Flavors Fast facts
Flavors are feed additives that attempt to enhance the
taste and smell of feed to stimulate intake.
Pigs show preference for certain fl avors when given a
Flavors do not improve feed intake when pigs are not
given a choice.
Under the conditions of modern swine production, pigs need to be fed a balanced diet that meets their daily nutritional requirement for maintenance, growth, and reproduction. However, nutrient intake is largely determined by voluntary feed intake, which is greatly infl uenced by the chemical senses of olfaction and taste. Thus, it is essential to make sure that diets being offered to pigs are highly palatable to ensure high feed intake. This is especially important during times when pigs have decreased appetite, such as the fi rst few days post weaning. Therefore, it is believed that enhancement of taste or smell through the use of fl avors may help to improve the palatability of diets and, consequently, feed intake. Factors affecting feed intake
A number of factors have been identifi ed that affect feed intake in pigs. In most cases, feed intake is infl uenced by the interaction between some or all of these factors, which include the thermal environment, social factors (eg, stocking density), animal factors (eg, genotype), and dietary factors (eg, energy density and palatability). 1 Palatability of a diet refers to its acceptability features, including taste, smell, and texture, that the pig senses before feed is swallowed.
How can palatability of diets be improved?
Palatability of a diet may be measured by comparing the amount of that diet that a pig consumes relative to the amounts consumed of other diets. Palatability can be improved by using ingredients preferred by pigs or by using feed additives, such as fl avors, that make the diet more acceptable and encourage greater feed intake. The number of taste buds in pigs are at least three times that found in humans,2 suggesting that their sense of taste may be more developed and thus more responsive to varying tastes and fl avors in their food. What are fl avors?
Flavors are feed additives that attempt to enhance the taste and smell of feed to stimulate feed intake. Taste and smell are the senses...