Swimming

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Midterm Report
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In
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PHED 1282 (Individual/Dual/Corporative Swimming)
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Saturday 11:00-1:00/1:30-3:30
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gym
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Submitted by:
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REYES, kristien Ingrid s.
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Bs physics 1-1
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Submitted to:
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History and Background of Swimming
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S
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wimming has been recorded since prehistoric times. The earliest recording of swimming dates back to Stone Age paintings from around 7,000 years ago. Written references date from 2000 BC. Some of the earliest references to swimming include the Gilgamesh, the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible, Beowulf, and other sagas. -------------------------------------------------

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In 1578, Nikolaus Wynmann, a German professor of languages, wrote the first swimming book, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming (Der Schwimmer oder ein Zwiegespräch über die Schwimmkunst). -------------------------------------------------

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Competitive swimming in Europe started around 1800, mostly using breaststroke. In 1873, John Arthur Trudgen introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native Americans. Due to a British dislike of splashing, Trudgen employed a scissor kick instead of the front crawl's flutter kick. Swimming was part of the first modern Olympic gamesin 1896 in Athens. In 1902, Richard Cavill introduced the front crawl to the Western world. In 1908, the World Swimming Association, Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA), was formed. Butterfly was developed in the 1930’s and was at first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952. -------------------------------------------------

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Ancient times
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Cave men from the Stone Age were found in the "Cave of Swimmers" near Wadi Sora on the Gilf Kebir plateau in southwestern Egypt, near the Libyan border. These pictures seem to show breaststroke or dog paddle, although it may also be possible that the movements have a ritual meaning unrelated to swimming. This cave is also featured in the movie The English Patient. An Egyptian clay seal dated between 4000 BC and 9000 BC shows four swimmers who are believed to be swimming a variant of the front...
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