CHAPTER 13: RENAISSANCE
1. Which Italian city-state dominated the renaissance until the 15th century? Florence 2. A major difference between Italian and Northern Renaissance was that the Italian renaissance was more secular. 3. The characteristics of Italian Renaissance art are curvilinear rhythms, rich color, and detail. 4. Upper class women during the Italian Renaissance declined in status. 5. A major difference between European society in the Renaissance compared to society in the later middle ages was that the renaissance society experienced a sense of self separate and greater than their predecessors 6. Identify characteristics of the 16th century work of art, Toledo, by El Greco: showed a rejection of Renaissance ideals 7. Who was Niccolo Machiavelli and how did he believe a ruler should act? He was a civil servant of the Florentine republic and believed a ruler should be efficient in maintaining and gaining power and to not be limited my moral principles 8. An important characteristic of “new monarchs” of the late 15th and 16th centuries was their strong sense of royal authority and national purpose. 9. How does Thomas More in Utopia describe the conditions of 16th century England? Flawed social institutions/greed were responsible for human corruption 10. In the period 1450 to 1550—how would you explain the major differences between society in Renaissance Italy and the societies of France and England? France and England were more religious and the Renaissance was a development of broad social reform based on Christian ideals
CHAPTER 14: REFORMATION
1. Identify the following 16th century Catholic figures: [only need to know that Teresa of Avila promoted emotionalism and a personal relationship with God] 2. The ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin were similar that: they maintained the sacraments of communion and baptism. 3. The art entitled the Passional of Christ and Antichrist reflect: the Lutheran movement rejected corrupt practices of the Roman Catholic church 4. The Council of Trent (1545-1563) is significant because it ended pluralism and absenteeism, raised the standards of the clergy, and reaffirmed Catholic practices. 5. What European ruler posed the biggest obstacle to the spread of Protestantism in the 16th century? Charles V 6. Ignatius Loyola: created Society of Jesus and helped convert much of Europe back to Catholicism 7. Discuss the doctrine of the Anglican Church under Henry VIII: the king is the head of the church, was a permanent break with Rome, dissolved English monasteries for their wealth, and was between Catholicism and Protestantism 8. Identify the results of the Treaty of Westphalia: ended conflict over religious faiths and recognized the sovereignty of German princes CHAPTER 15: EXPLORATION
1. The first European explorer to find an all-water route to India by rounding the southern tip of Africa was Vasco de Gama. 2. Given information about each of these explorers, look at those who may have been opposed to the cruel treatment of American Indians in the 16th century New World: a) Francisco pizarro- conquered Incans, and landed in Peru b) Christopher Columbus- discovered Caribbean, cruel to the natives c) Bartolome de Las Casas- Spanish missionary, wanted to end Indian slavery, started black slavery d) Tomas de Torquemada- headed Spanish Inquisition
e) Philip II- not an explorer, funded the voyages
21. Identify technological innovations and advancements used in navigation during the 16th century: ship cannon, astrolabe, caravel, magnetic compass 22. What country was the first to introduce African slavery to the New World? Portugal 23. Identify some immediate causes of the Thirty Years’ War. Defenestration of Prague [act of throwing someone out a window] 24. Explain the impact of the commercial revolution had on Western European Society:...