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Chpt 4-6 study guide
WHAP
1) The early Aryan’s chief god was Indra
2) Harappa is still a mystery because of little written records and little material records 3) The Indus river dominated early Harappan society
4) Harappan society:
a. Social- distinct classes like always in history
b. Trade- w/ Mesopotamia, Hindu Kush, and Persia for things like wool, leather, olive oil c. Artistic- pottery, lots of smiths and artisans, art focused on fertility d. Tech- super complicated drainage and sewer system way ahead of its time 5) The decline of the Harappan society MAY have been caused by ecological degration, natural disasters, and it fully disappeared around 1500 BCE 6) Aryans:

e. Def: Noble people
f. Migration: Slow (like the Bantu of west Africa) migration/ brought along horses/ settled in Punjab, India 7) From the literature of the vedas we gain the most information about the Aryans 8) The Aryan word for social classes was Varna (color)

9) Major classes in India was 1) Brahmin (priests) 2) Kshatriyas (warriors) 3) Vaishyas (merchants) 4) Shudras (common farmers) and the untouchables 10) Untouchables were people who performed the dirtiest of dirty acts 11) Jeti was the word for subcastes. Your job determined your Jati 12) Vedic society was the Vedic age which contained the Aryans, Dravidians, Indians, and it was when the Rig Veda was compiled 13) The most important aspect of Aryan religion is to achieve Moksha 14) The Upanishads were dialogues that explored the Vedas and religious issues 15)

g. Moksha- a sleep that is dreamless, achieved by fully detaching from the material world (which is extremely hard) h. Samsara- souls temporarily go to the World of the Fathers before being reincarnated i. Karma- do what you want to be done to you in this life or other lives j. Sati- when widows throw themselves onto their spouse’s pyre 16) The 2 ways to...
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