Sustainable Tourism Development

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This article was downloaded by: [113.210.1.106] On: 22 March 2013, At: 07:28 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

Journal of Sustainable Tourism
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A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism
Jackie Clarke Version of record first published: 29 Mar 2010.

To cite this article: Jackie Clarke (1997): A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5:3, 224-233 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09669589708667287

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A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism
Jackie Clarke
School of Business, Oxford Brooks University, Wheatley Campus, Wheatley, Oxford OX33 1HX Based on an extensive literature review, this paper proposes a framework of approaches to sustainable tourism. The framework is composed of four positions, chronologically sequenced according to the dominant understanding of sustainable tourism as a possession or goal. The positions are those of polar opposites, continuum, movement and convergence. The framework offers insights into the development of the sustainable tourism concept and enables identification of an author’s approach to the concept.

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Introduction
The understanding of sustainable tourism has developed from the early ‘is it or isn’t it sustainable tourism’ debate, to the acceptance that research energy should be channelled into practical ways of assisting all forms of tourism to move towards sustainability. The fundamental difference is the assumption of the former, that sustainable tourism is, in some manner, already a possession of certain types of tourism or situation, against the acknowledgement of the latter, that sustainable tourism is not an inherent characteristic of any existing form or situation, but a goal that all tourism must strive to achieve. The tremendous volume of output on the subject over the last decade (Brown, 1991) has contributed to the recognised ambiguity in terminology (Beioley, 1995; De Kadt, 1990; Lanfant & Graburn, 1992; Murphy, 1994; Pearce, 1992, etc.) and the surfeit of labels. For example, ecotourism has no unequivocal usage. It has been expressed as a symbiotic relationship between tourism and nature conservation (Farrell & Runyan, 1991; Valentine, 1993), been equated with nature tourism (Boo, 1990), and constructed as a Venn diagram (Buckley, 1993; Wight, 1995). Occasionally, labels are combined to produce hybrids (see, for example, Dernoi, 1988; Wight,l995). As a concept, sustainable tourism is still evolving.

A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism
Based on a critical literature review of both academic and industry contributions, the proposed framework comprises four positions of understanding of sustainable tourism. These four positions: · are broadly chronological,...
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