Sustainable Tourism

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Sustainable
Tourism
Challenges for the Philippines

Sustainable
Tourism
Challenges for the Philippines

Edited by
Ramon Benedicto A. Alampay

Copyright 2005
By the Philippine APEC Study Center Network (PASCN)
and the Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)

Printed in the Philippines. All rights reserved.

The findings, interpretations and conclusions in this volume are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of PASCN and PIDS and other institutions associated with the PASCN project on sustainable tourism development. The publication of this volume is funded by PASCN and PIDS. The members of PASCN include: Asian Institute of Management, Ateneo de Manila University, Central Luzon State University, De La Salle University, Foreign Service Institute, Mindanao State University, Philippine Institute for Development Studies (Lead Agency and Secretariat), Silliman University, University of Asia and the Pacific, University of San Carlos, University of the Philippines and Xavier University.

Please address all inquiries to:
Philippine APEC Study Center Network Secretariat
NEDA sa Makati Building
106 Amorsolo St. Legaspi Village
1229 Makati City, Philippines
Tel.no.: (63-2) 8939588, 8925817; (63-2) 8935705, 8924059
Fax No: (63-2) 8939588; PIDS (63-2) 8939589, 8161091
E-mail: pascn@pidsnet.pids.gov.ph; publications@pidsnet.pids.gov.ph URL: http://pascn.pids.gov.ph; http://www.pids.gov.ph

ISBN 971-564-083-4
RP 04-05-500

Table of Contents

List of tables and figures
Preface
Chapter 1. The Challenge of Sustainable Tourism
Development in the Philippines
Ramon Benedicto A. Alampay

vii
x

1

Chapter 2. A Comparison of Tourism Policy Frameworks:
The Philippines and Thailand
Maria Cherry Lyn S. Rodolfo

23

Chapter 3. Toward the Development of Sustainable Tourism
Indicators: An Analysis of Sustainable Tourism
Programs and Practices Among ASEAN National
Tourism Organizations
Reil G. Cruz

81

Chapter 4. A Framework for Classifying Ecotourism
Initiatives in the Philippines
Ramon Benedicto A. Alampay and Carlos Libosada

127

Chapter 5. Perceived Tourism Impact on Indigenous
Communities: A Case Study of Sagada
in Mountain Province
Juline R. Dulnuan

161

Chapter 6. Impact of Whale Watching on our Cetaceans and
Coastal Populations in Bais City, Philippines
Florence C. Evacitas

205

v

Chapter 7. Contested Space: Tourism, Power and Social Relations Jose Eleazar R. Bersales

239

Chapter 8. Maintaining Competitive Advantage in Tourism
Organizations: Emerging Patterns of Employment
and Challenges for HRD
Susan L. Solis

275

vi

List of Tables and Figures
Chapter 1
Figure 1

Figure. 2

Chapter 2
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Table 8
Table 9
Table 10
Table 11
Table 12
Table 13
Table 14
Table 15
Table 16
Table 17
Table 18
Table 19
Figure 1
Figure 2

Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Chapter 3
Table 1
Table 2

Proposed conceptual framework for research
on sustainable tourism development in the
Philippines
Perceived effects of increased tourist arrivals on
family livelihood

Visitors arrivals in Southeast Asia (1999-2002)
Number of tourists and dollar receipts in Asian
countries: 1968-1970
Arrivals and receipts from 1971 to 1977
Arrivals and receipts (1978-1986)
Arrivals and receipts (1989-1997)
Arrivals and receipts (1993-1998)
Arrivals and receipts (1998-2004)
Arrivals and receipts (1960-1976)
Arrivals and receipts (1977-1981)
Arrivals and receipts (1982-1986)
Arrivals and receipts (1987-1991)
Arrivals and receipts (1992-1996)
Arrivals and receipts (1997-2001)
Market dependency ratio (2000)
DOT budget vs. total government appropriations
(in pesos)
Indices of centralization and decentralization
Impediments to individual travel
Summary of manpower trainings (1997-2001)
Measures of tourism development
Comparison of NTO budgets
Number...
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