Plastic Shopping Bags: An Analysis of Policy Instruments for Plastic Bag Reduction • 500 billion to 1 trillion of plastic bags are consumed worldwide every year. • Is made of non-renewable resource.
• The accumulation of PSB litter gives big impact to the environment. • Most PSB is not degradable and are usually disposed into landfills. • Cost of PSB are usually passed down to the consumers in the form of higher prices. • Introduction of PSB policy to reduce the consumption of plastic to protect the environment • Governments gain benefits through increased revenue from the implementation of the policy, and reduced future cost associated with the environment, resources, litter clean-up and etc. • The introduction of PSB policy is difficult due to pervasive human culture, secondary problems from alternatives and objections from affected industries • Large number of the retail sector uses PSB in its operations. • Consumers have low awareness of PSB issues as PSB are viewed as free of charge when in fact they are hidden costs. • PSB are viewed as convenience
• An average household spend $10-15 on PSB yearly.
• Wildlife endangerment from PSB littering.
• In 2006, over 750,000,000 pieces of PSB were found letter in over 60 countries. • Production of PSB emits toxic chemicals and fumes such as methane, ethane and ketones. • For every 520 single-use of HDPE bags, it resulted in 3.12kg of materials consumed, 210 megajoules of energy use, and 6.08kg of CO2 emitted. • As for every 520 single-use of LDPE bags, it resulted in 11.77kg of material consumed, 957 megajoules of energy used, and 29.8kg of CO2 emitted. • It is estimated that 4% of the world’s total oil for PSB production.
CO2 emission from vehicles
• Transportation is a necessity in daily life thereby vehicles are irreplaceable. • The global number of cars...