- Establishment Clause of the First Amendment
- Student-led, student-initiated prayers during football games were in violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
Equal Access Act (this is not a court case, but it deals with civil liberties)
- Passed in 1984
- Title 20 of the United States Code
- If a school receives no federal funding and has a “limited open forum” or at least one student led non-curricular club, then it must allow all non-curricular clubs that follow guidelines within this act.
Reynolds v. United States
- First Amendment
- A man was charged with bigamy for marrying a woman while still being married to another in Utah, attempting to plead innocent over religious duty. Supreme Court ruled that religious duty was not a suitable reason for criminal indictment.
Cantwell v. Conneticut
- First Amendment and 14th Amendment
- Some Jehovah’s Witnesses were distributed religious materials but offended pedestrians when an anti Roman Catholic message was sent through their phonograph. They were arrested for violating a local ordinance requiring a permit for solicitation and for inciting a breach of the peace. They were let go because the message was protected by freedom of religion and although it was offensive, did not cause any type of physical harm or endangerment.
Minersville ISD v. Gobiti
- 1st and 14th Amendment
- 2 students were expelled because they refused to salute the flag as part of the schools daily ritual. The courts upheld the mandatory flag salute and did not make this as a violation of rights because the state's interest in "national cohesion" was "inferior to none in the hierarchy of legal values" and that national unity was "the basis of national security."
WVA Bd. of Ed. v. Barnette
- 1st Amendment
- The case once again questioned whether mandatory salute was an infringement of the 1st amendment. The decision in Minersville ISD... [continues]
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