Date: Decided In June 17, 1963 or Feb 27,1976
Problem: Schempp filed suit on the Abington school district for requiring students to read verses from the Bible in Pennsylvania. Outcome: Schempp argued that it was unconstitutional, violating religious freedom. Part of the constitution:
The First amendment: exercise of free religion, speech, and press The fourteen amendment: Never should any state impede the life, liberty, or property of a person Precedent: Got rid of laws that required religion as part of public schools
Baker v Carr
Date: Decided on March 26, 1962
Problem: Charles w. Baker argued that Tennessee’s reapportionment failed to take into account economic and population change. The court was split 6 to 2 in favor of Baker, and made redistricting court worthy and therefore the federal court could intervene in reapportionment issues. Outcome: The court took into account that otherwise it would deny the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. Part of the constitution: the fourteen amendments: Never should any state impede the life, liberty, or property of a person. Equal Rights Precedent: Unrepresented voters can have the federal courts redraw the districts and therefore representation will be fair
Baze v Rees
Date: Decided on April 14, 2008
Problem: Baze, who was sentenced to death in Kentucky, argued that the lethal injections violated the constitution. It violated the 8th amendment of cruel and unusual punishment. Outcome: The Supreme Court concluded that the injections did not present suffering or pain and therefore it didn’t ban the Eighth Amendment. The Eighth Amendment was taken into account because it bans cruel and unusual punishment. Part of the constitution: Eighth Amendment: No human shall be subjected to cruel an unusual punishment Precedent: death penalty is constitutional as long as unnecessary pain isn’t inflicted.
Bethel school district v Fraser
Date: Decided on July 7, 1986
Problem: Mathew Fraser argued that Bethel School District was violating the First amendment, which was his freedom of speech, when he was suspended for using vulgar language. Outcome: Burger argued that the First Amendment didn’t prohibit the schools from not allowing vulgar language. Bethel School District won 7 votes in favor and 2 against. Therefore schools may prohibit vulgar language and the First Amendment allows certain limits. Part of the constitution: The First Amendment: Freedom of speech, press, and religion Precendent: Tinker v Des Moines, was used as an example to decide the case because it dealt with freedom of speech and press in schools.
Bowers v Hardwick
Date: Decided on June 30, 1986
Problem: Hardwick took part in consensual homosexual sodomy and was charged because he violated a Georgia statute, which is against sodomy. Outcome: the Supreme Court enforced The Fourteenth Amendment because this issue would violate the Due Process Clause and therefore would be unconstitutional. Hardwick lost with 5 votes against and 4 votes in favor. Part of the constitution: The Fourteenth Amendment: Never should any state impede the life, liberty, or property of a person. Equal Rights Precedent: states had rights to go against homosexuals because it was considered sodomy.
Brandenburg v Ohio
Date: Decided June 9, 1969
Problem: Brandenburg, a Ku Klux Klan member, was convicted for a speech he made that went against the Ohio Criminal Syndicalism Law, and he argued it was unconstitutional. Outcome: Brandenburg won 8 votes in favor with none against. Part of the constitution:
The First Amendment: Freedom of speech, press, and religion The Fourteen Amendment: Never should any state impede the life, liberty, or property of a person. Equal Rights Precedent: Government can’t have laws against inflammatory speech unless it is targeted to propel imminent lawless action.
Brown v Board of Education of Topeka
Date: Decided on...