Supreme Court

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1) John G. Roberts, Jr. Chief Justice of the United States.
Justice Roberts was born on January 27, 1955 in Buffalo, NY. Roberts was confirmed on May 8, 2003, and received his commission on June 2, 2003 By President George Bush.

**Hedgepeth v. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, 386 F.3d 1148 Involved a 12-year-old girl who was arrested, searched, handcuffed, driven to police headquarters, booked, and fingerprinted after she violated a publicly advertised zero tolerance "no eating" policy in a Washington Metro station by eating a single french fry. She was released to her mother three hours later. She sued, alleging that an adult would have only received a citation for the same offense, while children must be detained until parents are notified. The D.C. Circuit unanimously affirmed the district court's dismissal of the case, which was predicated on alleged violations of the Fourth Amendment (unreasonable search and seizure) and Fifth Amendment (equal protection). 2) Antonin Scalia, Associate Justice

Antonin Gregory Scalia was born on March 11, 1936. Scalia was born in Trenton, New Jersey. In 1986, Scalia was appointed by Reagan to the Supreme Court to fill the associate justice seat. Scalia was unanimously confirmed by the Senate, and took his seat on September 26, 1986. **Rasul v. Bush

In 2004, in Rasul v. Bush, the Court held that federal courts had jurisdiction to hear habeas corpus petitions brought by detainees at the Guantanamo Bay detainment camp. Scalia accused the majority of "spring[ing] a trap on the Executive" by ruling that it could hear cases involving persons at Guantanamo when no federal court had ever ruled that it had the authority to hear cases involving people there. Scalia (joined by Justice John Paul Stevens) also dissented in the 2004 case of Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, involving Yaser Hamdi, an American citizen detained in the United States on the allegation he was an enemy combatant. The Court held that the post-9/11 congressional Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF) amounted to authorization for the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus and the Government could continue to detain Hamdi. Scalia wrote that the AUMF could not be read to suspend habeas corpus and that the Court, faced with legislation by Congress which did not grant the President power to detain Hamdi.

3) Anthony M. Kennedy, Associate Justice
Anthony McLeod Kennedy was born on July 23, 1936 is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States who was appointed by President Ronald Reagan in 1988. On November 30, 1987, Kennedy was nominated to the Supreme Court seat Kennedy was born and raised in Sacramento, California. **Hodgson v. Minnesota

The case concerned a Minnesota law. The laws required notice to both parents of a minor before she could undergo an abortion; it also contained a judicial bypass provision designed to take effect only if a court found one to be necessary. Dr. Jane Hodgson, a Minneapolis gynecologist, challenged the law. The Eighth Circuit had ruled that the law would be unconstitutional without a judicial bypass, but that the bypass provision saved it. Justice Kennedy pointed out the usefulness of the bypass procedure, as judges granted all but a handful of requests to authorize abortions without parental notice. There were five votes for each of two holdings. O'Connor, Stevens, Brennan, Marshall, and Blackmun formed a majority holding that the two-parent notice requirement was unconstitutional. O'Connor joined the Court's conservatives, however, to form a majority for the law being valid with the judicial bypass. This case involved the first restriction on abortion that O'Connor voted to strike down.

4) Clarence Thomas, Associate Justice
Clarence Thomas was born on June 23, 1948 and is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Thomas grew up in Savannah, Georgia. On October 30, 1989, Thomas was nominated by President...
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