- aestetheic movement causes split between artist and middle class
- Buhemium life in france becomes popular with authors. artist reject society and consider themseves outcast and exiled
- edward succeeds victoria with a very different personality
- irish struggle against english tyranny gains momentum
-the english empire begins to crumble culminating in the loss.
-poetry of this period emphasizes hand clear images and a direct treat meant of the object
- meter is freer as poets explore new forms
-fiction sees a new approach to relate, witch is Hollander addressed through the copious details of the victorians
-narrators are often flawed and the focus is usually on their inward conflict
- open ended stories replace the neat ending of the victoria era
-setting are often wrapped in mist and fog to symbolize that reality is not knowable in straight forward victorian
Thomas Hardy 1840- 1928
- did not believe in a benevolent god ruling the universe but felt that man is at tge mercy of the forces of fate.
- believed that man could achieve dignity in how he met and handled his fate
- style was stripped down to elemental for using ellipses, invented words and new forms.
- theme is often the irony between human desire and fates results
-born in st. louis in 1888
- attended harvard but became english citizen in 1927
- worked with critic ezra pound, to shape a style that became the standard for 20th century poetry.
- his style tends to
1. eliminate transitions
2. juxtapose surprising images
3. be romantic but undercut by dry irony
4. combine literary references for world readers with ought common cultural experiences
common theme: the sterility of modern civilization
3 main influences:
- french symbolist poets
- metaphysical poets
- indian mystical philosophy
James joyce 1882-1941
- born in dublin but lived and wrote in paris
- believed that exile made... [continues]
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