tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific region and caused tremendous devastation locally
This is the fourth .
largest earthquake in the world and the largest in Japan since instrumental recordings began in 1900. The
IOC/UNESCO reports that as of April 18, 2011, there are 13,895 deaths and 13,864 missing in Japan. This is the
deadliest tsunami since the 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami caused nearly 230,000 deaths and
$10 billion in damage. This is the most devastating earthquake to occur in Japan since the 1995 Kobe earthquake
caused over 5,500 deaths and the deadliest tsunami since the 1993 Hokkaido earthquake generated a tsunami which
was responsible for over 200 deaths.
MARCH 11, 2011 EYEWITNESS AND INSTRUMENTAL RECORDINGS
Preliminary field survey results indicate the highest runup height was 38 meters (no tide correction) in Iwate
Prefecture (http://www.coastal.jp/tsunami2011/). Runup is the difference between the elevation of
maximum tsunami penetration (inundation line) and the sea level at the time of the tsunami. Tide gauge
recordings in Japan range from 1 to 7 meters. Three meter waves were observed by eyewitnesses in the
Kuril Islands, Russia. Two meter waves were observed at tide gauges in South America, Hawaii, and the west
coast of the United States. The highest wave ever recorded by an ocean-bottom sensor was measured at
1.08 meters by DART® station 21418 located 450 nautical miles northeast of Tokyo. NGDC will continue to
update the historic tsunami database as eyewitness and field survey reports are received.
HISTORICAL EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS IN JAPAN
According to the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Center for Marine Geology and
Geophysics / (http://ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard) Global Historical Event databases, 2,099 tsunamis
have occurred in the world since 2000 B.C. and... [continues]
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