Sun Yat-Sen: A Biography

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Sun Yixian (12 November 1866--12 March 1925), whose real name was Sun wen, the genealogical name was Sun Deming, the milk name was Sun Dixiang, the Cantonese pronunciation is Sun Yat -sen. He was a Chinese revolutionary, first president and founder of the Guomingdang and the Republic of China(ROC). So in Taiwan province, he was also been called as Sun Guofu, it was meaning ‘father of the nation’. And on the Chinese mainland, in the People’s Republic, he is well known as Sun Zhongshan. Sun Zhongshan will be used in this essay, and Sun Zhongshan success or failure will be discussed. The first succeed of Sun Zhongshan was overthrew the feudal. Modern China was a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society, it was different with the feudal society before the Opium War, and also different with the nonmoral capitalist society. Imperialist aggression forces defeated China and forcing Qing dynasty government signed unequal treaties. These imperialist forces not only manipulated China’s financial and economic lifeline, but also manipulated China’s political and military power. China’s feudal forces colluded with imperialism to maintain its status with the dirty means which was betrayed national sovereignty to imperialist as exchange. With the imperialist invasion, the self-sufficient economy which was the basis of the feudal era bankrupt. But the foundation of the feudal exploitation system still alive, and together with the comprador capital and usury capital. The occupied a significant advantage in China’s society and economy. Although national capitalism had some development, but their power were weak. They could not become the main form of China’s socio-economic as they faced the foreign capitalist forces, bureaucratic comprador forces and feudal forces. At this beleaguered situation, China had to establish an independent and unified modern state and a powerful central government for the national revival. Sun Zhongshan was a peace-loving people. He tried to submit a written letter to Li Hongzhang who was the prime minister of Qing dynasty. Tried to push the improvement of the Qing dynasty for top-down and achieve self-reliance. But he was ignored by Li Hongzhang. Sun had to abandon the way of improve and embarked revolution. In August 20, 1905, Sun Zhongshan and Huang xing created Revolutionary Alliance(Tongmenghui) with the vows “to expel barbarians, to revive Zhonghua, to establish a Republic, and to distribute land equally among the people”. Sun’s political philosophy of the ‘Three People’s Principles’ was publish in the News paper of Tongmenghui. The establishment of the Revolutionary Alliance effectively promoted the development of the national revolutionary movement. Sun dispatch revolutionary to the domestic and foreign develop organizations and revolutionary propaganda. He widely spread bourgeois democracy republican ideology, so more and more people engaged in anti-revolutionary. Sun’s thoughts made a powerful ideological preparation for the Xinhai Revolution. October 10, 1911, the Wuchang Uprising was outbreaking and responding by many provinces. Sun came back from America in December after the news and then inaugurated as provisional president of the Republic of China in Nanjing. Revolutionary party setting the provisional government of the Republic of China. In February 12, 1912, the last emperor (Puyi) ---Xuantong emperor was forced to abdicated. This abdicated meaning the ending of autocratic monarchy which had over 2000 years’ history. Xinhai Revolution established the first bourgeois nature of the Democratic Republic in Chinese history. Republic of China promulgated the “Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China”. The idea of democratic republic was deeply into Chinese people’s mind. This revolution gave a heavy blow to imperialist aggression force in China. It was a historic groundbreaking process and effect of revolution emancipation the mind of Chinese. Although Xinhai Revolution was...
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