Strategic Management .
School of Strategy.
According to Synder and Neil H. (1982) in their journal called ‘Strategic Management Journal’ , The school of strategy definition of strategic planning that are offered by Henry Mintzberg in 1981 concludes that strategic planning is a process involving all components of planning that integrated decision making, structured procedure with articulate results, and specific tactical objectives that should be seen as a whole process. In the school of strategy, there are 10 school of thought, it is divided into two parts which are prescriptive and descriptive. The details of the strategy are shown below.
Prescriptive schools : consist of 3 schools which are Design, Planning and Positioning. Descriptive schools : consist of 7 schools which are Entrepreneurial, Cognitive, Learning, Power, Cultural, Environmental and Configuration.
Also, Written in article called “ An Overview of Strategy Development Models and the Ward-RIvani Model’ by Dr. David Ward (2005). In year 1977 another guy came along which a set of strategy alongside Mitzberg that called Whittington. He claimed that there are four criteria that will determine a strategy success which are Deterministic or Emergent, Single Goal or Pluralistic, Strategy Style, and Influences.
The Link between Prescriptive schools and Descriptive schools.
From what i understand from both of this schools, prescriptive schools are the first step of strategy that needed to be done If we would like to do something. For example, If you want to open your own business, the first step would be the prescriptive school where you need to design what kind of business you would like to do, plan how to do your business (business plan) and also how you position your business(where do you want your business to be). In the other hand , Descriptive schools of strategies are the strategies and skills that are needed to bring forward you prescriptive schools . Where all components of this strategy can effect your business. For example, any successful business need to have a leader who can lead the organization forward where what has been designed, plan , and positioned and to be a leader, strategy as entrepreneurship is essential.
The Differences between Prescriptive schools and Descriptive schools.
In Prescriptive schools, design and planning are the aim of a company “ to fit organizational capability with environmental ability and to best allocate resources to achieve any chosen goals within a specific timeframe” and to make the aim a success, a proper positioning strategy needed to be done. All of theses examples often using strategies such as environmental analysis such as SWOT analysis (design), forecasting (planning), Market segment & five forces (positioning). Therefore, we would understand here that prescriptive schools are used to understand more about the market. For instance, in strategic management, prescriptive schools are often used to determine who is your target market, understanding your competitors, defining your opportunities, and also what kind of strategy that our company would like to execute properly to gain competitive advantage especially if you are doing business globally or growing your business internationally. In the other hand, Descriptive Schools are more of all the things that needed to be in order within a company or organisation to execute the strategy that has been choose. For example, even with a proper planning but without a proper team to execute it, it will be hard for any business to sustain even in the early stage while making business. Its consist of leader needed, networking we have, culture reflects , economic cycle, environmental circumtances, ethics , and also cognitive psychology. Which means that, in descriptive schools , it is all the components that a company or firm need to have in order to execute any strategy perfectly.
How to Profeciently Execute any strategy when...