ENGLISH WORLD AROUND SUMMARY
The British Isles is the name for the Group of islands that includes Great Britain. Ireland and lots of smaller islands such as the Orkneys and the Hebrides off the Scottish coast or the Isle of Wright and the Isles of Scilly of the English coast. Great Britain is the biggest of these islands and is made up of England, Scotland and Wales. The United Kingdom is the political name for Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
There are two official languages in Great Britain: English and Welsh (from wealh = foreigner). They are both Indo-European languages, which means that these languages all come from the same root language which doesn’t exist anymore nowadays.
The British flag is called Union Jack. Three crosses: England, Scotland and Ireland.
Britain has a ‘first-past-the-post’ electoral system, which means that the person who gets the most votes in a constituency automatically becomes the MP, even if they won by only one vote. The ‘first-past-the-post’ system usually favours two main parties. In Britain, the Labour Party and the Conservative Party. The party with the most MPs forms the government.
Budget – Money available for a project or projects.
Devolution – When power is given to a local authority from a central one. Turnout – People who vote in an election, etc.
Referendum – When the people vote to change or accept a government proposal.
British children must go to school between the ages of 5 and 16. The compulsory education system is divided into four Key Stages which follow a National Curriculum. At the end of each stage, students are tested. Once they are 16, students can decide either to leave school or to study for their A-levels or AS levels. AS levels have half the content of A-levels. In order to go to university, students need 2 or 3 A-levels.
England is the largest country in Great Britain with a population of 49.1 million people. Most people live in the fertile south-east of the country and 7.2 million people live in the capital city, London.
Football, or soccer, is England’s national sport. Almost one in three people in England takes a regular interest in football ad most people support a team. First, street football was quite popular, until it was banned because it was so dangerous. Modern football began in the 19th century when it was played in public schools and universities.
Oxfam (the Oxford committee for famine relief) was set up during the Second World War in order to help famine victim in Greece. Oxfam started helping wherever disaster struck throughout the developing world, collecting money, educating people and trying to influence politicians. The organisation opened shops, run by volunteers, in order to sell donated goods, Fairtrade products or third-world crafts. The Fairtrade Foundation was set up in 1992 by Oxfam and other charities in order to help raise awareness of Fairtrade products. When you buy a Fairtrade product you know the producer is receiving a fair price for his or her produce. It also guarantees that child labour is not used to make these products.
Chicken Shed is based in London and it’s the UK’s largest inclusive theatre company. Chicken Shed believes that the performing arts belong to everyone and that everyone has a talent to share. Everyone is involved: young people from different backgrounds and with different physical and emotional difficulties. History
Around 4000 BC, some people moved from Europe to England. They were farmers and grew crops and raised animals.
Around 2500 BC another group of people arrived in England. They were the Beaker people and they worked with metals such as gold and bronze (Bronze Age). They built Stonehenge.
In the Iron Age, towards 600 BC, the Celts arrived. They lived in big families or “clans”, and had a rich culture and they loved fighting.
Around 43 AD, the Roman Emperor Claudius conquered Britain. The Romans called this “new province”...