* Personalism – refers to the importance of personal factors, feeling secured to friendship. * Impersonalism – refers to not being influenced of friendship in formal situations. * Non-rationalism – is the idea of unreasonable thinking of a person when dealing to uncertain events. * Rationalism – it is the idea that one can achieve a goal by preparing or/and planning. * Particularism – refers to one’s concern is in a subgroup like friends, relatives and other subgroups. * Universalism – refers to one’s concern is within the nation or global. * Nationalism – An individual's internalization of the set of beliefs and values expressing love, pride and identification with a given nation state. * Bahala na – is an attitude towards a certain thing with lack of initiative and lack of punctuality. * Utang na loob – it refers to a debt of gratitude to a person for a favor.
1. Cognitive – choice done with mental or intellectual reasoning. 2. Affective – choice must be valued, loved and affirmed. 3. Behavioral – values that is habitually done.
Basic Filipino Values
1. Emotional closeness and security in family – closeness in family and extended family. 2. Approval from authority and society – desire to please the authority. 3. Economic and social betterment – uplifting one’s state in life. 4. Patience, endurance and suffering – matiisin attitude.
Values adapted in Philippine Culture
1. Equal opportunity – everyone has an opportunity to be successful. 2. Achievement and success – rewards reflects our personal trait. 3. Material comfort – being wealthy.
4. Activity and work – our actions reflect to ourselves. 5. Practicality and efficiency – being practical in thinking. 6. Progress – what is new is considered the best.
7. Science – source of knowledge.
8. Democracy and free enterprise –...