Chapter one is all about the major issues in second language instruction that arose during classroom research. There are four general issues concerning the effectiveness of the classroom instruction that was mentioned. The first issue is entitled “Learning from instruction” which concerns Krashen’s extensive analysis of the role of instruction within his framework of interpreting L2 acquisition, wherein he views the effects of instruction as limited, however: the classroom should function to provide the learner with comprehensible target language (TL) input in an affectively supportive climate. The second issue is entitled “Teacher talk” the main goal of this research has been to determine what makes teacher talk an aid to learning, the initial approach of this research has been to describe the features of L2 teacher talk which distinguish it from speech to L2 learners in non instructional settings. The third issue is entitled “learner behavior”, both the teacher and the learners have been investigated not only their linguistic behavior but their learning strategies and social interactions with other learners have been the target of research. Some researchers have placed great emphasis on finding out whether the learners are viewed as being in control of their own learning. The last issue is entitled ”Interaction in the classroom ”, interaction is viewed as significant because it is argued that 1) only through interaction can the learner decompose the TL structures and derive meaning from classroom events, 2) interaction gives learners the opportunities to incorporate TL structures into their own speech. In chapter one the four major issues were introduced, because in the chapters that will follow, each chapter will treat the issues just outlined in greater detail.
Chapter 2: Classroom research methods.
Chapter two presents the principal studies and concepts that have elaborated the methodology for observing and analyzing classroom instruction and interaction. Several approaches were mentioned in this chapter, majority of it is the methodological approaches. Methodological approaches to the study of L2 classrooms are extremely varied, reflecting both a great diversity of research questions and purposes, and a range of theoretical perspectives on the conduct of research. There is a continuous give-and-take between the success and failures of quantitative and qualitative approaches to portray and explain precisely the processes and products of classroom interactions. These approaches have followed methods adopted by researchers in native language schooling or other sociological and sociolinguistic studies of communicative interaction. In this chapter these methods were described with regard to their capacity to extract and validate generalizations about social and linguistic processes occurring in L2 classrooms.
Chapter 3: Teacher talk in second language classrooms
Chapter three surveys research on the linguistic and discourse characteristics of teacher speech to L2 learners. This chapter reviews research that has investigated second language classrooms in terms of teacher’s language use in the classroom, especially the characteristic features that differentiate speech to nonnative speakers from that to native speakers. It was also mentioned here the four modifications in teacher speech which are: first is the modifications of speech rate, prosody, phonology, wherein the researchers that were involved , found teacher’s speech to second language learners to be slower, in comparison with other contexts and conditions. Second is the modifications of vocabulary, where they claim that both non teachers and teachers tend to use a more basic set of vocabulary items in their narratives told to L2 learners. Third is the modifications of syntax, it is by far one of the most...