Summary of “Universities, Governments and Industry:

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Young argue in this journal the situation of university investigation and its different facets. Since 1950s, university research is facing many changes. Some changes are positive, like the expansion of population going to university, but others are negative, like the interference of governments and industry. The view of the author of what a university should be is that of teachers and students engaged, mainly, in knowledge that will profit society not only with a short economic gain. History probes that since the beginning there have been forces trying to affect the outcomes of university research. Before it was religion, but now is the industry who wants to put its influence in universities. Things started to change in university research after the World War II. Research funds were no more available through departmental resources, but through governments and industry. In this context, the report of Bush stated that the government should provide support for research, but also that scientist should freely investigate. At the end of the last century, many countries had granting councils. This model supposed more money for research, but also prioritized scientific research over art or social sciences. As the needs of universities increased, more detached were administrators from faculty, and more open were researchers to be transformed in entrepreneurs. In Canada, after an agreement, universities are increasing their commercialization in a way that makes Young wonder if this will be considered for tenure as much as teaching and researching. With this situation, some faculty members are more open to become entrepreneurs. This is putting in risk the nature of universities and the future of academic medicine. For example, in mild to moderate depression, both drugs and psychotherapy weight the same, but because of the push and the funds of pharmaceutical companies, there are more research centred in drugs. This situation could bring great misrepresentation in the...
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