Theory X: The Traditional View of Direction and Control
The article describes a customary perspective of direction and control in management by presenting some assumptions about human nature and behavior, and motivation in business. It is assumed that people do not like to take responsibility and they abstain it in every possible ways as a result of human nature. This belief is embraced by some organizations as management strategy. According to this strategy, “people who don’t like to work and avoid it must be coerced, directed, controlled and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives”. People especially need security as well as their desire of avoiding responsibility and being directed by someone. All of these assumptions are attributed to Theory X, which provides an interpretation of some human behaviors in business. Even though the human motivation is a complicated issue, there are some research findings about it in recent years, which help to explain deficiencies of Theory X. Moreover, they generate a foundation of completely distinctive theory of management. Based on these findings, it can be said that human is an insatiable creature. It is emphasized many times in the article, “as soon as one of human needs is satisfied, another appears in its place, and this is a process which never ends”. Obviously, article creates a pyramid chart, which indicates the importance level of human needs, and physiological needs are located at the bottom as an essential one in this graphic. These refer to a person’s fundamental needs for living such as hunger, shelter, rest, and exercise. These needs cannot be a motivator by themselves in human behavior unless they are taken away. When physiological needs are satisfied, safety needs appear as next higher level in the pyramid chart. These refer to protection from danger, threat, and deprivation. Usually, safety needs are associated with security....
Please join StudyMode to read the full document