What is organizational behavior? It is the study of what people think, feel and do in and around organizations. Thus, organizations are groups of people who work interdependently with each other towards a common goal. Intellectual Capital is a company’s stock of knowledge, including Human Capital, Structural Capital, and Relationship Capital. There are Five types of individual behavior, which are task performance, organizational citizenship, counter productive work behavior, joining and staying with the organization and lastly, maintaining work attendance. Another important aspect about organizational structure is the Anchors of Organizational Behavior Knowledge. There are four (4) types of anchors which are the following; multidisciplinary anchor, systematic research anchor, contingency anchor and multiple levels of analysis anchor.
Individual behavior is influenced by motivation, ability, role perception, and situational factor which are also known as the MARS model. Motivation consists of internal forces that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of a person’s voluntary choice of behavior. Ability includes both the natural aptitudes and the learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task role perceptions are a person’s beliefs about what behaviors are appropriate or necessary in a particular situation. Situational Factors are environmental conditions that constrain or facilitate employee behavior & performance.
Perception involves selecting, organizing, and interpreting information to make sense of the world around us. Perceptual organization engages categorical thinking-the mostly no conscious process of organizing people and object into preconceived categories that are stored in our long-term memory. Mental models-internal representations of the external world-also help us to make sense of incoming stimuli.
Emotions are physiological, behavioral, and psychological episodes experienced toward and object, person, or events that create a state of readiness. Emotions differ from attitudes, which represent a cluster beliefs, feelings, and behavioral intentions towards a person, object, or event. Beliefs are a person’s established perceptions about the attitude object. Feelings are positive or negative evaluations of the attitude object. Behavioral intentions represent a motivation to engage in a particular behavior with respect to the target.
Motivations consist of the forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior in the workplace. Drives (also called primary needs) are neutral states that energize individuals to correct deficiencies or maintain an internal equilibrium. They are the “prime movers” of behavior, activating emotions that put us in a state of readiness to act. Needs-goal-directed forces that people experience-are shaped by the individual’s self-concept (including personality and values) social norms, and past experience.
Money and other financial rewards are a fundamental part of the employment relationship, but their value and meaning vary far from one person to the next. Organizations reward employees for their membership and seniority, job status, competencies, and performance. Membership-based rewards may attract job applicants, and seniority-based rewards reduce turnover, but these reward objectives tend to discourage turnover among those with the lowest performance. Rewards based on job status try to maintain internal equity and motivate employees to compete for promotions. However, they tend to encourage a bureaucratic hierarchy, support status differences, and motivate employees to compete and hoard resources. Competency-based rewards are becoming increasingly popular because they improve workforce, flexibility and are consistent with the emerging idea of employability. However, they tend to be subjectively measured and can result in higher costs as employees spend more time learning...